Avalanche Deutsch Inhaltsverzeichnis
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Avalanches can only occur in a standing snowpack. Typically winter seasons at high latitudes, high altitudes, or both have weather that is sufficiently unsettled and cold enough for precipitated snow to accumulate into a seasonal snowpack.
Continentality , through its potentiating influence on the meteorological extremes experienced by snowpacks, is an important factor in the evolution of instabilities, and consequential occurrence of avalanches.
Conversely, proximity to coastal environments moderates the meteorological extremes experienced by snowpacks, and results in a faster stabilization of the snowpack after storm cycles.
Among the critical factors controlling snowpack evolution are: heating by the sun, radiational cooling , vertical temperature gradients in standing snow, snowfall amounts, and snow types.
Generally, mild winter weather will promote the settlement and stabilization of the snowpack; conversely, very cold, windy, or hot weather will weaken the snowpack.
At temperatures close to the freezing point of water, or during times of moderate solar radiation, a gentle freeze-thaw cycle will take place.
The melting and refreezing of water in the snow strengthens the snowpack during the freezing phase and weakens it during the thawing phase.
A rapid rise in temperature, to a point significantly above the freezing point of water, may cause avalanche formation at any time of year.
Persistent cold temperatures can either prevent new snow from stabilizing or destabilize the existing snowpack.
These angular crystals, which bond poorly to one another and the surrounding snow, often become a persistent weakness in the snowpack.
When a slab lying on top of a persistent weakness is loaded by a force greater than the strength of the slab and persistent weak layer, the persistent weak layer can fail and generate an avalanche.
Any wind stronger than a light breeze can contribute to a rapid accumulation of snow on sheltered slopes downwind. Wind slab forms quickly and, if present, weaker snow below the slab may not have time to adjust to the new load.
Even on a clear day, wind can quickly load a slope with snow by blowing snow from one place to another. Top-loading occurs when wind deposits snow from the top of a slope; cross-loading occurs when wind deposits snow parallel to the slope.
When a wind blows over the top of a mountain, the leeward, or downwind, side of the mountain experiences top-loading, from the top to the bottom of that lee slope.
When the wind blows across a ridge that leads up the mountain, the leeward side of the ridge is subject to cross-loading.
Cross-loaded wind-slabs are usually difficult to identify visually. Snowstorms and rainstorms are important contributors to avalanche danger.
Heavy snowfall will cause instability in the existing snowpack, both because of the additional weight and because the new snow has insufficient time to bond to underlying snow layers.
Rain has a similar effect. In the short-term, rain causes instability because, like a heavy snowfall, it imposes an additional load on the snowpack; and, once rainwater seeps down through the snow, it acts as a lubricant, reducing the natural friction between snow layers that holds the snowpack together.
Most avalanches happen during or soon after a storm. Daytime exposure to sunlight will rapidly destabilize the upper layers of the snowpack if the sunlight is strong enough to melt the snow, thereby reducing its hardness.
During clear nights, the snowpack can re-freeze when ambient air temperatures fall below freezing, through the process of long-wave radiative cooling, or both.
Radiative heat loss occurs when the night air is significantly cooler than the snowpack, and the heat stored in the snow is re-radiated into the atmosphere.
When a slab avalanche forms, the slab disintegrates into increasingly smaller fragments as the snow travels downhill.
If the fragments become small enough the outer layer of the avalanche, called a saltation layer, takes on the characteristics of a fluid.
When sufficiently fine particles are present they can become airborne and, given a sufficient quantity of airborne snow, this portion of the avalanche can become separated from the bulk of the avalanche and travel a greater distance as a powder snow avalanche.
Driving an avalanche is the component of the avalanche's weight parallel to the slope; as the avalanche progresses any unstable snow in its path will tend to become incorporated, so increasing the overall weight.
This force will increase as the steepness of the slope increases, and diminish as the slope flattens. Resisting this are a number of components that are thought to interact with each other: the friction between the avalanche and the surface beneath; friction between the air and snow within the fluid; fluid-dynamic drag at the leading edge of the avalanche; shear resistance between the avalanche and the air through which it is passing, and shear resistance between the fragments within the avalanche itself.
An avalanche will continue to accelerate until the resistance exceeds the forward force. Attempts to model avalanche behaviour date from the early 20th century, notably the work of Professor Lagotala in preparation for the Winter Olympics in Chamonix.
Voellmy and popularised following the publication in of his Ueber die Zerstoerungskraft von Lawinen On the Destructive Force of Avalanches.
Voellmy used a simple empirical formula, treating an avalanche as a sliding block of snow moving with a drag force that was proportional to the square of the speed of its flow: .
He and others subsequently derived other formulae that take other factors into account, with the Voellmy-Salm-Gubler and the Perla-Cheng-McClung models becoming most widely used as simple tools to model flowing as opposed to powder snow avalanches.
Since the s many more sophisticated models have been developed. Preventative measures are employed in areas where avalanches pose a significant threat to people, such as ski resorts , mountain towns, roads, and railways.
There are several ways to prevent avalanches and lessen their power and develop preventative measures to reduce the likelihood and size of avalanches by disrupting the structure of the snowpack, while passive measures reinforce and stabilize the snowpack in situ.
The simplest active measure is repeatedly traveling on a snowpack as snow accumulates; this can be by means of boot-packing, ski-cutting, or machine grooming.
Explosives are used extensively to prevent avalanches, by triggering smaller avalanches that break down instabilities in the snowpack, and removing overburden that can result in larger avalanches.
Explosive charges are delivered by a number of methods including hand-tossed charges, helicopter-dropped bombs, Gazex concussion lines, and ballistic projectiles launched by air cannons and artillery.
Passive preventive systems such as snow fences and light walls can be used to direct the placement of snow.
Snow builds up around the fence, especially the side that faces the prevailing winds. Downwind of the fence, snow buildup is lessened. This is caused by the loss of snow at the fence that would have been deposited and the pickup of the snow that is already there by the wind, which was depleted of snow at the fence.
When there is a sufficient density of trees , they can greatly reduce the strength of avalanches. They hold snow in place and when there is an avalanche, the impact of the snow against the trees slows it down.
Trees can either be planted or they can be conserved, such as in the building of a ski resort, to reduce the strength of avalanches.
In many areas, regular avalanche tracks can be identified and precautions can be taken to minimise damage, such as the prevention of development in these areas.
To mitigate the effect of avalanches the construction of artificial barriers can be very effective in reducing avalanche damage. There are several types: One kind of barrier snow net uses a net strung between poles that are anchored by guy wires in addition to their foundations.
These barriers are similar to those used for rockslides. Another type of barrier is a rigid fence-like structure snow fence and may be constructed of steel , wood or pre-stressed concrete.
They usually have gaps between the beams and are built perpendicular to the slope, with reinforcing beams on the downhill side. Rigid barriers are often considered unsightly, especially when many rows must be built.
They are also expensive and vulnerable to damage from falling rocks in the warmer months. In addition to industrially manufactured barriers, landscaped barriers, called avalanche dams stop or deflect avalanches with their weight and strength.
These barriers are made out of concrete, rocks or earth. They are usually placed right above the structure, road or railway that they are trying to protect, although they can also be used to channel avalanches into other barriers.
Occasionally, earth mounds are placed in the avalanche's path to slow it down. Finally, along transportation corridors, large shelters, called snow sheds , can be built directly in the slide path of an avalanche to protect traffic from avalanches.
Warning systems can detect avalanches which develop slowly, such as ice avalanches caused by icefalls from glaciers.
Interferometric Radars, high-resolution Cameras, or motion sensors can monitor instable areas over a long term, lasting from days to years.
Experts interpret the recorded data and are able to recognize upcoming ruptures in order to initiate appropriate measures. Such systems e.
Modern radar technology enables the monitoring of large areas and the localization of avalanches at any weather condition, by day and by night.
Complex alarm systems are able to detect avalanches within a short time in order to close e. An example of such a system is installed on the only access road of Zermatt in Switzerland.
The system automatically closes the road by activating several barriers and traffic lights within seconds such that no persons are harmed.
Avalanche accidents are broadly differentiated into 2 categories: accidents in recreational settings, and accidents in residential, industrial, and transportation settings.
This distinction is motivated by the observed difference in the causes of avalanche accidents in the two settings. In the recreational setting most accidents are caused by the people involved in the avalanche.
In a study, Jamieson et al. In contrast, all of the accidents in the residential, industrial, and transportation settings were due to spontaneous natural avalanches.
Because of the difference in the causes of avalanche accidents, and the activities pursued in the two settings, avalanche and disaster management professionals have developed two related preparedness, rescue, and recovery strategies for each of the settings.
Three days later 62 railroad workers were killed in the Rogers Pass avalanche in British Columbia , Canada. During World War I , an estimated 40, to 80, soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front, many of which were caused by artillery fire.
In the northern hemisphere winter of — approximately avalanches were recorded in a three-month period throughout the Alps in Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
This series of avalanches killed around people and was termed the Winter of Terror. A mountain climbing camp on Lenin Peak, in what is now Kyrgyzstan, was wiped out in when an earthquake triggered a large avalanche that overran the camp.
In , the Bayburt Üzengili avalanche killed 60 individuals in Üzengili in the province of Bayburt , Turkey. The mayor of Chamonix was convicted of second-degree murder for not evacuating the area, but received a suspended sentence.
The small Austrian village of Galtür was hit by the Galtür avalanche in The village was thought to be in a safe zone but the avalanche was exceptionally large and flowed into the village.
Thirty-one people died. Joel Roof was snowboarding recreationally in this backcountry, bowl-shaped run and triggered the avalanche.
He was carried nearly 2, feet to the base of the mountain and was not successfully rescued. In Europe , the avalanche risk is widely rated on the following scale, which was adopted in April to replace the earlier non-standard national schemes.
Descriptions were last updated in May to enhance uniformity. In France, most avalanche deaths occur at risk levels 3 and 4.
In Switzerland most occur at levels 2 and 3. It is thought that this may be due to national differences of interpretation when assessing the risks.
Avalanche size: [ citation needed ]. In the United States and Canada, the following avalanche danger scale is used. Descriptors vary depending on country.
There are nine different types of avalanche problems:  . The Canadian classification for avalanche size is based upon the consequences of the avalanche.
Half sizes are commonly used. The size of avalanches are classified using two scales; size relative to destructive force or D-scale and size relative to the avalanche path or R-scale.
Slab avalanche hazard analysis can be done using the Rutschblock Test. The result is a rating of slope stability on a seven step scale.
Climate change-caused temperature increases and changes in precipitation patterns will likely differ between the different mountain regions.
At lower elevations a long-term reduction in the number of avalanches corresponding to a decrease in snow, and a short-term increase in the number of wet avalanches are predicted.
Media related to Avalanche chute at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Avalanching.
This article is about the natural event. For other uses, see Avalanche disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Avalanche control.
Main article: Avalanche rescue. See also: List of avalanches. Main article: List of avalanches by death toll. Archived from the original on Retrieved Avalanche triggering by sound: Myth and truth PDF.
Based on order of magnitude estimates of the pressure amplitude of various sources that cause elastic or pressure sound waves it can be ruled out that shouting or loud noise can trigger snow slab avalanches.
The amplitudes are at least about two orders of magnitude smaller than known efficient triggers.
Triggering by sound really is a myth. Gravity currents in the environment and the laboratory. Natural Disasters.
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