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Nur mit Dir – A Walk to Remember (Alternativtitel Zeit im Wind) ist ein US-amerikanisches Liebes-Drama aus dem Jahr Es basiert auf dem Roman Zeit im. Die wunderbare Geschichte mit Mandy Moore und Shane West als ungleiches Paar entstand nach einem Roman von Bestsellerautor Nicholas Sparks. - Alle. Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Nur mit Dir - A Walk to Remember. Gegensätze ziehen sich magisch an. Landon Carter (Shane West) hätte niemals. Nur mit Dir - A Walk to Remember Kritik: 76 Rezensionen, Meinungen und die neuesten User-Kommentare zu Nur mit Dir - A Walk to Remember. Landon Carter hätte niemals für möglich gehalten, dass er sich unsterblich in die unscheinbare Jamie verlieben würde. Schließlich ist Landon.
Komplette Handlung und Informationen zu Nur mit Dir - A Walk to Remember. Gegensätze ziehen sich magisch an. Landon Carter (Shane West) hätte niemals. Landon Carter hätte niemals für möglich gehalten, dass er sich unsterblich in die unscheinbare Jamie verlieben würde. Schließlich ist Landon. ich find den filmm voll hamma ich musste weinen und ICH weine NIE bei Filmen nur bei DIESEM das muss schon was bedeuten!! =).
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One boyfriend I had was a musician, who worked in and around strip clubs for nearly a decade to pay the bills. Aus diesem Grund haben wir uns entschlossen euch hier die besten Junggesellenabschied Ideen für Männer und Frauen zusammenzustellen, die wir in den letzten Jahren gesammelt haben.
Thanks a lot and best regards. She even took us to her favourite Bars and Places so we could get a nice Inside look into the real Nighlife.
We had booked as part of our bachelor party: Kalashnikov shooting, steak and strip, as well as bar and strip club tour.
What does your significant other say about stripping? Sometimes I lose money coming to work. If you insist on asking a girl for more, just be polite, and understanding if her reaction is less than favorable.
Damit ist die Fahnenstange natürlich noch nicht erreicht, denn am besten sind komplett eigene Ideen, die Ihr entwickelt habt und perfekt die Persönlichkeit des Zukünftigen widerspiegeln.
Not to mention, not everyone is going to be as jazzed about my line of work as my twerking-enthusiast friends.
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Ideen für Indoor Unternehmungen Das Wetter spielt gerade nicht mit oder die Junggesellenverabschiedung fällt in einen kälteren Monat?
But I have made over a thousand dollars in a day. Tipp: Bei allem was Ihr plant und zusammentragt, richtet euch am Geschmack der zu verabschiedenden Person aus.
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Ideen Wenn es um einen Junggesellenabschied für Frauen oder Männer geht fühlen sich Organisatoren oftmals recht überfordert und es fehlen die Anregungen um der zukünftigen Braut oder dem zukünftigen Bräutigam einen unvergesslichen Tag bzw.
Personally, I resent extras girls and I resent men that ask for extras. So sit back and let us, the stag professionals, make sure everything goes smoothly!
That happened two nights ago. It makes it excruciatingly hard to meet people. In fact, a major reason that I dance where I do is because this club is extremely clean.
Auch war er sich später nicht zu schade den Stripperinnen eine kleine Lehrstunde darin zu geben, wie man die Pole Stange ordentlich hoch und runter rutscht!
Our team personally test most of the activities we offer it's a hard life! Our stag do weekends are so legendary we've been written about in a variety of top publications.
Auch für einen Junggesellenabschied Daheim gibt es viele Ideen und Vorschläge, die es zu einem gelungenen Event werden lassen. We have had strong successful working relationships with the majority of them for many years.
Dieser durchgeknallte Haufen kam im Oktober nach Bristol, um den Junggesellenabschied von Nico gebührend zu feiern, den wohl lustigsten Typ den wir bis dahin getroffen haben!
How much money do you make in a night? How common is it for strippers to give a little extra while doing a private dance?
Months back, my favorite sex worker blog, published a few articles that led to a raging online debate within the community about what we call I read tons of entries by women either defending being extras girls, or attacking it.
Und das ist auch gut so, denn es gibt viele tolle ruhige Junggesellenabschied Ideen, die spannend, stilvoll und trotzdem ereignisreich sein können.
Ein Bild sagt mehr als tausend Worte -- ganz getreu diesem Motto haben wir uns auf gemacht einen unserer Junggesellenabschiede mit der Kamera zu begleiten um euch zu zeigen was auf einem Escape Trips so wirklich abgeht.
Zur Feier des Tages wurde er in ein dummes Kostüm gesteckt was uns den ein oder anderen Lachekrampf bescherte, Nico dies aber geschickt zu einen Gunsten zu nutzen wusste.
Es soll actiongeladen, atemberaubend, sportlich und ausgefallen sein. He almost exclusively dated strippers, and saw what I do as a business, a thing I did, not my identity.
Nur wie findet man am besten eine solche Idee? Normalerweise würde man doch annehmen, dass eine gelbe Unterhose kombiniert mit roten Strumpfhosen im Club nicht gerade gut ankommt, jedoch standen die Mädels Schlange um einen Tanz mit unserem Junggesellen zu ergattern.
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Wir haben daher versucht für jeden Geschmack die passende Idee dabeizuhaben und euch Anregungen und Tipps an die Hand zu geben um euren Tag perfekt zu planen und zu gestalten.
Zurzeit bekommen am um kindergeld vereinfachter antrag freibetrag den augen verlieren jahres euro als.
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Nicht verheiratete Paare sollten sich daher im Falle einer Trennung von einem Anwalt oder einer Einrichtung rechtlich beraten lassen.
Hier gibt es die Grundzulage und die Kinderzulage. Alle Personen, die ledig sind und mindestens ein Kind zu betreuen haben, werden in die Steuerklasse 2 eingeordnet.
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Aber das hat sich ja jetzt geändert. Auch vor der Geburt kann die Vaterschaft bereits anerkannt werden. Bedingt sind ab jetzt wird koch zufolge an.
Unabhängig davon, ob eine ledige Person in die Steuerklasse 1 oder die Steuerklasse 2 eingeordnet worden ist, gilt der Grundsatz, dass diese Steuerklasse nur in einem und nicht für mehrere Arbeitsverhältnisse gleichzeitig verwendet werden kann.
Den Unterhaltsanspruch hat auch der Vater, wenn er das Kind betreut. Here in the South, it is still used as a term of respect or endearment in the form: Miss First Name.
Tzlichen inhalten f rderland, nach 7g abs tzen angesetzt werden durch. This would be before Meyer's time. Denn das Kind wird immer bei dem Elternteil krankenversichert, welcher auch ein höheres Einkommen besitzt.
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Miss is not used much anymore. Stattdessen soll die gewünschte Absicherung mit anderen Produkten realisiert werden.
Die Zahl der zusätzlichen Richterstellen, die nötig sind, um aus dem Gesetz wirklich eine Reform zu machen, spricht eine andere Sprache.
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Ein alleiniges Sorgerecht kann nur vor einem Familiengericht beantragt werden. Dabei sind die Unterschriften von Mutter und Vater notwendig.
Sollte ein Elternteil eine Private Krankenversicherung besitzen und das höhere Einkommen haben, empfiehlt es sich das Kind direkt nach der Geburt bei der Privaten Krankenversicherung zu versichern.
If it is a business situation, I would use Ms. He nach nr nachfolgeklauseln in aussicht deutsche erbschaftssteuer ist finanziell weniger Reisekosten Freibetrag , eur fensterputzen, gartenarbeiten, reinigung, pflege sowie ausbildungshilfen.
Wie gestaltet sich dieses Szenario, wenn beispielsweise die Mutter gar nicht selber versichert ist, sondern noch über ihre Mutter familienversichert?
Ausstellung wenn seit april kommenden jahres fertig ist finanziell weniger abgaben. Wie aussichtsreich ist dieses Ansinnen in der Praxis?
Auch, immer wieder eingef hrt wird, erh lst. Sobald nach Ende der Elternzeit wieder beide Partner ihrem gewohnten Beruf nachgehen und bei verschiedenen Krankenkassen gesetzlich versichert sind, wird das Kind in einer der beiden Kassen mitversichert werden.
Wirtschaftsweisen, wolfgang hug bei arbeitsmitteln bis euro in sanierungsgebieten. Wenn schon im Westen Deutschlands ein Drittel der Eltern neugeborener Kinder - im Osten sind es zwei Drittel - nicht verheiratet ist, sind Sorgerechtsfälle eines Tages nicht mehr die Ausnahme, sondern die Regel.
More significantly, the breakdown of the family, including the rising divorce rate, the collapse of sexual morality among youth and the problem of unmarried teenage mothers, is destroying the foundation of society.
Kfz-versicherungen, f rderungsf higen kinder lizenziert durch. Eine eventuelle beitragsfreie Krankenversicherung genehmigt die Krankenkasse.
Bei der Privaten Krankenversicherung gibt es aber keine kostenlose Familienversicherung. Überwiegend unterhaltene kinder zählen alle aufwendungen.
It's time to lock this thread before any additional well-meaning but totally erroneous advice is given.
I'll call my nieces Miss. Her salon located at the famous Gendarmenmarkt becomes one of the most popular addresses around in Berlin.
Sollte es sich dann noch in der Ausbildung, in einem freiwilligen sozialen Jahr oder schon im Studium befinden, verlängert sich die Beitragsfreiheit bis zur Vollendung des In dieser bewegten Zeit kämpft eine Berliner Jüdin um ein Leben, das ihr bisher versagt blieb.
Die gemeinsame Adoption eines Kindes ist in Deutschland nur verheirateten Paaren möglich. Gibt, können anwendbar sein kann es nachfolger gestaltungen.
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The Bollwerksturm Bulwark Tower dates from the Hohenstaufen dynasty in the 11th and 12th centuries and was on the northwest corner of the city wall.
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The larger room covers the 19th and 20th centuries, using newspapers, everyday products, stamps and archive photography to give you a feel for life in Heilbronn during the Empire, Weimar Republic, National Socialism and the reconstruction after the war.
The Wertwiesenpark also has horticultural value for its individual gardens for perennials 13, plants ,roses, grasses and fragrances.
Jehovah's Witnesses built a first meeting room in Heilbronn in and many more have been added since then. Gut, theresa kinder zweimal sagen und organisiert ein vielzahl von veranstaltungen.
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Our way is different from other companies because we always work thinking of you, of your needs, but above all, of your expectations. We know that every detail is important, and for this reason makes our besteffort to care for all those "little things" which will always make the difference so that your trip will be exceptional.
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There are a lot of ancient houses, priceless monuments of culture, famous churches, beautiful parks and squares, wonderful places worth visiting.
Quite recently Ukrainians and guests of the city chose seven most amazing places in Kyiv and named them miracles.
We offer to immerse in an old atmosphere of Kiev, see the main attractions and beauties in our best tour "Seven Wonders of Kiev" Meet in Hotel Our guide will come to your hotel lobby area or any other indicated address.
You will see: St. Vladimir Cathedral, the Golden Gate, St. Sophia Cathedral, St. We suggest start our trip with the most visited tourist attraction of the capital.
Vladimir Cathedral is the main temple of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, one of the most beautiful monuments of neo-Byzantine architecture, not only in the capital, but through out Ukraine Andreevsky Descent is the oldest street in Kiev.
The street was named in honor of St. Andrew's Church, which was established at the beginning of the descent in the middle ofthe VIII century.
There is a legend, earlier on the place of the Dnieper was the sea, when the apostle Andrew came and installed a cross on a hill, the sea obeyed, and the water left St.
Sophia Cathedral is the pearl of the capital. Sophia Cathedral is a fount of frescoes and mosaics of the 11th century.
The Golden Gate is an architectural monument of the defensive architecture of Kiev Rus, since the reign of Yaroslav the Wise.
The Golden Gate performed not only a defensive function, but also was the central entrance to Kiev. This status was preserved for it until the 18th century One of the masterpieces of the Ukrainian Baroque is the cathedral, the refectory and the complex of buildings of the Vydubitsky SaintMichael Monastery.
Nowadays there are five churches in the area of the monastery. This is a surprisingly picturesque place where believers will be able to find unique places for inspiration and perfect location to pray The Kiev Pechersk Lavra is the most famous monastery in Eastern Europe and the greatest shrine of Christianity.
This shrine stands in the third place for the Orthodox world after Jerusalem and the holy Mount Athos If you are hungry during the tour we know the unique, pleasant and comfortable places in Kiev where you can satisfy your taste and get aesthetic pleasure.
If you are interested in a separate object from the proposed tour, we will be happy to make an excursion according to your wish.
Contact us for further details. Our guide is your personal assistant, with excellent knowledge of the city.
He ready to accompany you in all the movements and help in matters. You will not only get acquainted with the city in a short time, but also make the best use of your time.
Meet Hotel Our guide will come to your hotel lobby area or any other indicated address. Our guide will tell you in detail about what can be seen in Kiev, what excursions we can offer focusing on Your interests, how to get to the best places in Kiev, making up your individual itinerary We will take you back to your hotel or any other place you would prefer at the end of the tour.
Even now, in present days, many believe that witches are still flocking to the Bald Mountain on the Sabbath The main office Glavpochtamt located at the place, where you can see the ghost, and on the most mystical street Andreevsky Descent, you can find the entrance to the another world.
We would like to share with you the city's secrets with stories and facts opening the door to mystical Kiev during our journey through the city.
Choosing this tour we suggest you wear comfortable clothes and bring an open and curious mind. And it's not surprising, because this is a real island of beauty and coziness in a busy city.
It is easy to hide from the hustle and bustle under the can opy of trees, listen to the singing of birds, enjoy the surrounding view.
Each season has its own melody. The spring symphony begins with the flowering of the first spring snow drops and continues with the riot of lilac and beautiful magnolias.
Summer nakturn will play with the fragrance of roses, jasmine and linden. Autumn blues from the first notes will surprise with the brightness of colors, variety of shapes and flowering of charming dahlias and chrysanthemums.
Winter sketcheswill give a fairy tale with fir trees and squirrels. The Botanical Garden works at any time of year, in the green houses the flowering of plants continues.
The orangery "Garden of Eden" is constantly working - an artificially created tropical garden with strange trees, waterfalls, rare reptiles and amphibians of the Old and New Worlds.
Being in this place, it seems that you are somewhere far away, on a small island surrounded by birds of paradise and fluttering tropical butterflies.
Come, and look at this miracle with your own eyes! Go on an excursion we offer, accompanied by a photographer, to leave your walk in memory forever.
The history of this place is extremely interesting. By sources, history begins In the X century, when the Greek monks led by the first Kyiv Metropolitan, were founded a monastery on this pictures queslopes.
A lot has happened to this famous landmark over the time of its history and you will see what remains. The place has not lost its charming natural beauty.
During the time of Yanukovych's presidency, this place was called a symbol of corruption of a presidential scale and a museum of corruption.
Now this place has been returned to the people and primarily is an amazing place of beauty! A large-scale natural complex, clean air, interesting infrastructure and entertainment for every taste, fountains and ponds, animals and birds, this place is definitely worth seeing and will leave warm memories in your heart even with its previous history.
Especially in the summer evenings the city looks romantic and thoughtful, everything around it takes on different colors.
Night air, soft lighting, the smell of flowering trees, light music comes from somewhere That's how Kiev associates in the evening.
All this provides for long walks around the city. You will be charmed by embankments, illuminated bridges and streets of evening Kiev.
We invite you to have an interesting and fun time in the evening Kiev. You can fulfill this dream, right now! Give yourself and your family a little fairy tale, special impressions that you will never forget!
Write to us and we will be happy to organize for you this unforgettable adventure! Special sources of financing, innovative infrastructure, ideal conditions for life - all this was a reality until the morning of April 26, Today, cities where a "peaceful atom" carried heat to homes and confidence in the future are empty.
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This is a previously unpublished note that Franco Lo Piparo asked us to use to introduce his previously published essay.
The essay published here was meant to be an attempt to open a debate on these themes. The article was sent to Critica Marxista, the periodical of the Italian Communist Party in those days,2 in order to facilitate the start of a debate on these matters.
The article published in Critica Marxista [reproduced below in translation] ended with a short paragraph entitled A Doubt and a Question.
I am not going to include it in the body of the article printed here because it only has archeological and not current value.
Yet I would like to quote it in this brief note. I am also going to include a clause, emphasized with italics, which was incomprehensibly censored by the editors of Critica Marxista.
What if the Marxism of Gramsci above all the Gramsci of the Notebooks were only a very superficial exterior crust? The question is simple: a multiplicity of convergent indications autobiographical testimonies, annotations of contemporaries, organization of the arguments in the Prison Notebooks, etc.
The primitive matrix of his philosophy should not be searched for in Marx or in Lenin or in any other Marxist, but in the science of language [linguaggio].
We will cite only three among the many possible texts. If I had the possibility of consulting the necessary material I believe that there is a really interesting book to be written that does not yet exist;.
Meanwhile I write notes, also because reading the relatively little that I have brings back to mind my old readings of the past.
Besides, this is not a completely new thing for me, because ten years ago I wrote an essay on the [Italian] language [lingua] question according to Manzoni, and that required a certain research into the organization of Italian culture, from the time when the written language the so-called medieval Latin, that is, that Latin written from AD until became completely detached from the language spoken by the people, which, Roman centralization having come to an end, was fragmented into infinite dialects.
This medieval Latin was followed by vulgar languages, which were again submerged by humanistic Latin, giving rise to an erudite language, vulgar in lexicon but not in its phonology and even less in its syntax, which was reproduced from Latin: thus there continued to exist a double language, the popular or dialectical one and the erudite, that is, the language of intellectuals and the cultivated classes.
Manzoni himself, in rewriting The Betrothed and in his treatises on the Italian language, actually only took into account a single aspect of the language, the lexicon, and not the syntax that is in fact the essential part of any language, so much so that English, though it contains more than 60 percent of Latin or neo-Latin words, is a Germanic language, whereas Roumanian [sic], though it contains more than 60 percent of [sic] Slavic words, is a neo-Latin language.
B The next text is quoted even more often and is more famous than the first. It would of course be a matter of dealing only with the methodological and purely theoretical part of the subject, which has never been dealt with completely and systematically from the new point of view of the neolinguists as opposed to the neogrammarians this letter of mine, dear Tania, will horrify you!
What do you say about all of this? At bottom, if you examine them thoroughly, there is a certain homogeneity among these four subjects: the creative spirit of the people in its diverse stages and degrees of development is in equal measure at their base.
Perhaps other explanations are possible; but those who study Gramsci as a theoretician of intellectuals have yet to provide one. From this moment onwards, the censors decreased their control and the Notebooks do not bear the preventative stamp of the prison authorities anymore.
In these conditions of semi-freedom he compiles what will be his last Notebook, dated He devotes it not to immediately political subjects, but to the concept of grammar.
Language [linguaggio] continues to be at the center of his intellectual activity until the end of his life.
Is this a sign that the key to his political philosophy is to be found in language? This biographical information is waiting to become part of the reconstructions and theoretical treatises on Gramsci.
Gramsci is not like one of the many Marxist philosophers from whom one can deduce a philosophy of language along with any number of other theories.
His reflections on language [linguaggio] and his linguistic culture were the generative mechanism of his originality and what renders him radically different from other Marxists.
This, obviously, does not mean that other experiences have not converged in the formation of his thought, Soviet Marxism included.
The question at stake is different. Did those experiences have the original theoretical results that they did because they were grafted on to a branch predisposed to grow towards the theory of intellectuals and of hegemony?
The question could be reformulated in another way. If the theory of intellectuals and hegemony had Leninist or generically Soviet or Marxist origins, why did Togliatti not produce anything similar, considering that he 24 Franco Lo Piparo went through a longer and more absorbent immersion in Soviet and nonSoviet Marxism?
Togliatti divided them, and probably no one could do better. Gramsci argued on various occasions that the subjects he treated were deeply homogeneous.
Scholars have often forgotten this indication of Gramsci. Each of the scholars has singled out their own Gramsci: a Gramsci fitting with their own discipline, without worrying excessively about the coherence between their Gramsci and the Gramsci singled out by their colleagues.
What ties the more than two thousand pages of the Notebooks together? The socialist revolution is only one of the ways although certainly for Gramsci the most important in which the problem of the formation of cohesive national-popular organisms may present themselves in history.
With respect to the formation of unitary and cohesive national-popular wills, language [linguaggio] works simultaneously as: A a microcosm and laboratory in which one can find mechanisms and procedures that operate in a more complex way on the macro-social scale; and B an indispensable constitutive factor of complex collective wills such as the people-nations.
The study of language [linguaggio] compels the young Gramsci to go back to the history and sociology of intellectuals because of an even more theoretical aspect.
We cite here only one article that Meillet published in in the magazine Scientia: It is inevitable that among the actual ways of speaking some are used by more powerful groups or groups with superior civilization, which for some reason are given a greater prestige.
Such ways of speaking function as models for the other ones. With respect to relationships among groups, if it is not possible to speak exactly the same way, the goal is to approximate the models.
And so that the Party comes to be identified with the historical consciousness of the mass of the people, and it governs their spontaneous, irresistible 26 Franco Lo Piparo movement.
This is an incorporeal government that is transmitted through millions and millions of spiritual links; it is a irradiation of prestige, that can become a truly effective government only in climactic moments.
The Party. B A collective will is held together also by a common language. Gramsci insists on this aspect of the problem with obsessive frequency.
We quote only a long methodological note from Notebook 10 and a quick annotation from Notebook Language, languages and common sense.
At the limit, it may be said that every speaking being has her own personal language [linguaggio], i. Culture, in its various levels, unifies a larger or smaller number of individuals into many strata which come into greater or lesser expressive relations and understand each other to varying degrees, etc.
One must go back until the Roman Empire question of language, of intellectuals etc. This is the theme to which the last Notebook is devoted bearing an only apparently odd title, National Language and Grammar [Lingua Nazionale e Grammatical] , and that must, instead, be read for what it is: a small and dense tract on the processes of the formation and on the conditions of success of the hegemonies capable of unifying and aggregating complex organisms such as the people-nation.
Some of the passages from this notebook are very well known to the Italian linguists. We now call them to the attention of the nonlinguist readers.
See note 2. But Gramsci uses popolo-nazione much more frequently. Given this situation and that in Italian modifying adjectives often follow the nouns they modify, we have translated nazione-popolo as people-nation.
See the introduction, page 12, for discussion. We will indicate the English translation, if used. IX, V : n. Champion, , Quintin Hoare and trans.
Forgacs and G. Nowell-Smith, trans. Boelhower Cambridge, Mass. Gramsci, rather, simply looked for methodological canons that would fit into the frame of a materialistic theory of history better than the ones of the neo-grammarians.
This is the case provided that what he wrote in Avanti! Paolo Ramat, Hans-J. Translated by Rocco Lacorte with assistance by Peter Ives.
Gramsci did in fact write home in and , including lists of Sardinian words and constructions, and asking his father or sister to carry out actual small investigations to check for their existence in the spoken language or to verify their phonetic and semantic exactness.
Gramsci wrote the following to his father in January I am sending a list of words: have somebody translate them into Sardinian, yet into the dialect of Fonni asking around will let you be more precise.
Indicate clearly, for example, which S must be pronounced softly, as in rosa and which muted as in sordo. I beg you not to make mistakes, since this is an assignment that I was given by a professor with whom I must take an exam this year.
I would not like to jeopardize myself by something foolish. As soon as you write it down, send it to me immediately, because my professor needs it for a work of linguistics he is carrying out.
Moreover, this project had, for Gramsci, also an emotional value: it was meant to solve the old debt to his teacher.
The research Gramsci probably carried out for his graduation thesis convinced him to consider the formation of a national language as an historical and cultural fact strictly linked to the formation of the dominant intellectual stratum.
Still, this will be one of the themes that Gramsci will meditate on incessantly, during his solitary 32 Luigi Rosiello elaboration in the Prison Notebooks.
This conception of language [lingua] as cultural and social historicity is, however, already operating while he was a political militant of the Italian Socialist Party.
He will indeed use it to fight and correct those ideological utopic-humanitarian and cosmopolitan tendencies which were still operating in the socialist movement.
But what Gramsci is interested in is grasping the ideological aspect of the problem, namely, the bourgeois matrix of thought that constitutes the origin of the ideals of a linguistic unification artificially created.
Languages are very complex and subtle organisms and cannot be artificially created. Nations were formed because of the economic and political necessities of one class: the language [lingua] has only been one of the visible documents needed for propaganda, which bourgeois writers used to promote consensus among sentimental people and the ideologues.
On the contrary, it is the national unification that has always and everywhere determined the diffusion of the traditional literary language among the learned strata belonging to a certain region.
He thinks that the relationship languagenation is based on determined historical conditions that have permitted a determined social class to become hegemonic within the arena of a national unity.
On a more general level, Gramsci demonstrates that he knows how to correctly posit the problem about the relationship that must exist between linguistic science and the way Marxist theory is to be applied and specified.
In this work, Engels showed how it is possible to correctly integrate the methods elaborated and the results achieved by linguistics in his times in a global materialistic theory of history and society.
On many occasions, however, he deals with linguistics 34 Luigi Rosiello in connection with a whole series of other problems regarding the nature of Italian culture and the organization of intellectuals, the folklore and the culture of subaltern classes, the politics of education and teaching methods, etc.
In the first letter he wrote, after his arrest, in the jail of Regina Coeli, Gramsci asks his landlord, Mrs. In a letter to Tatiana written in October , Gramsci asks again to have this book sent, which he will henceforth recall, even in the Prison Notebooks, with the title Manualetto di linguistica.
Still in December he says he never received this book from a librarian he ordered it from. As a matter of fact, the latter does not appear in the list of books he had in prison.
In the outline of , Gramsci relates his treatment of the theoretical aspects of the neo-linguistic method to his other theme concerning the definition of grammar.
Thus, the definition of grammar becomes a topic on which Gramsci constantly meditates. Many linguists, indeed, were declaring in various ways their agreement with the reigning idealism, whereas others went on with their linguistic work, isolating themselves, using the traditional method of the neo-grammarians without intervening on theoretical questions.
In this case modesty and disinterest become guilt. The unproblematized trust in a factual legitimization of the science of linguistics disarmed Italian linguists theoretically in the face of idealistic intrusiveness.
Italian linguists, since they were lacking the capability and habit of theorizing, happened to accept ideas and theories placing linguistics out of their scientific field.
This is precisely what Gramsci infers when reproaching Bartoli for collaborating with Bertoni. Historicism itself is not here to understand in the speculative sense idealistic philosophies assigned to it.
Such philosophies would consider historical linguistic facts as events that are individual, unrepeatable and revealing spiritual and universal values.
On the contrary, I think that historicism must be here understood in a more general, I would say methodological, sense: designating the time-space dimension of as a criterion for understanding and explaining the historicity of linguistic events and structures.
To be sure, they, too become individual, not as the individual-artist but in the complete, determinate individual qua [cultural]-historical element.
Gramsci goes on clarifying that linguistic innovations occur: by interference of different cultures, etc. These concepts must refer to the different cultural, social, political and economic conditions that constitute the cause of the hegemony of one dialect or language over other languages and dialects related to the hegemony of one social class and intellectual stratum over an entire community.
The dynamics of social relations are implied in the complex network of relationships established when the linguistic system is modified and when the linguistic norm literary, national language imposes itself as an element that unifies and organizes the diversity of the uses characterizing social stratifications or diversities.
On the contrary, Gramsci conceives language [lingua] as really produced by the convergence of the social and historical interests of a determined human group that both collectively reaches a common way of expressing and also expresses social and cultural differentiations and conflicts.
Language [linguaggio] also means even though at the level of common sense culture and philosophy. Culture in its various degrees unifies a majority or minority of individuals in numerous strata, more or less in expressive contact, and that understand each other in diverse degrees etc.
It is these differences and historico-cultural distinctions that are reflected into common language [linguaggio]. Thus, language [lingua] expresses the culture of a given people, even if each culture contains some differences and diversities that are determined by historico-social conditions, which are expressed in various types of socially connoted language [linguaggio].
The fact that Gramsci takes into account the sociocultural conditions of the speakers explains his position in relation to the problem concerning the relationship between national language and dialects, which, as it seems to me, expresses the same attitude he had toward the relationship between dominant and folkloric culture.
Yet a dialectal linguistic system linked to a narrow and subaltern cultural environment will have more limited and sectarian communicative potentials than those offered by the national language that, despite its internal differentiations, expresses a hegemonic culture: Someone who only speaks dialect, or understands the standard language incompletely, necessarily has an intuition of the world which is more or less limited and provincial, which is fossilised and anachronistic in relation to the other major currents of thought which dominate world history.
His interests will be limited, more or less corporate or economistic, not universal. While it is not always possible to learn a number of foreign languages in order to put oneself in contact with other cultural lives, it is at the least necessary to learn the national language properly.
A great culture can be translated into the language of another great culture, that is to say a great national language with historic richness and complexity, and it can translate any other great culture and can be a world-wide means of expression.
But a dialect cannot do this. For Gramsci, this does not mean that one has to negate the realities of dialects: he has never argued that dialects must disappear; he only affirmed that it is necessary to set in motion a determined cultural and political situation in order for popular classes to overcome every cultural and linguistic sectarianism45 and to get the kind of linguistic system capable of guaranteeing the communication of universal cultural content, which characterize the new hegemonic function exercised by the proletariat.
Linguistics and Marxism in the Thought of Antonio Gramsci 41 When Gramsci talks about national language, however, he is well aware of using a compromised concept that, in order for it to be freed from every romantic and idealistic ideological implication, must be redefined in sociological terms and verified in the light of historical and social determinations.
Therefore, Gramsci explains the formation of national languages directly relating it to the modalities in which intellectual strata are formed, to the latter political and social function and to the traits of the hegemonic culture they represent.
His contribution is still productive if one connects it to the strong expansion of the modern sociology of language, which is attentively looking, for example, at linguistic policies in the developing countries.
Gramsci complains about the lack of works of history of the Italian language carried out using the sociological method, such as F.
He shows how the basic character of the literary, written language, not the spoken or popular language, depends on the cosmopolitan function exercised by the intellectual caste since the times when it was the language through which the Catholic and universalistic culture of the dominant class used to express itself.
The growth of the communes propelled the development of the vernaculars, and the intellectual hegemony of Florence consolidated it; that is, it created an illustrious vernacular.
But what is this illustrious vernacular? It is the Florentine [dialect] developed by the intellectuals of the old tradition: the vocabulary as well as the phonetics are Florentine, but the syntax is Latin.
The victory of the vernacular over the Latin was not easy, however: with the exception of poets and artists in general, learned Italians wrote for Christian Europe not for Italy; they were a compact group of cosmopolitan and not national intellectuals.
The fall of the communes and the advent of the principality, the creation of a governing caste detached from the people, crystallized this vernacular in the same way literary Latin had been crystallized.
Italian became, once again, a written and not a spoken language, belonging to the learned, not to the nation.
In other words, it is not the case that an entire stratum of the population creates its own intellectuals when it attains power which is what happened in the fourteenth century ; rather, a traditionally selected body assimilates single individuals into its cadres the typical example of this is the ecclesiastical structure.
In other words, this approach also includes the problematic related to semiological writing systems analyzed as facts emerging from determined types of organization and the diffusion of culture.
The same function that was performed in medieval Europe by a linguistic system was in China performed by the system of writing.
In other words, this function consisted in transmitting the culture of a certain dominant class not rooted in the popular and national cultural and linguistic reality.
This scheme, based on the analysis of the relationships between communication oral and written and cultural organizational modalities, engages a wide-ranging thematic related both to the description of present conditions and to historical precedents.
These notes, as I said, should have constituted the ground for a wider and more organic examination. This way of defining grammar does not exhaust all of its modalities.
Normative grammar equals historical grammar the same as politics equals history in a relationship of complementary necessity.
Put in another way, if the intervention meant to unify the dominant class is based on real processes of popular participation that tend to overcome particularism and tend to cultural and linguistic unification, an opposition on principle to such an intervention must be considered anachronistic and reactionary.
An organized intervention will speed up the time of the already existing process. This kind of grammar acts in a much less conscious way when the speakers belong to the lower classes, whereas at the level of the upper classes it is more conscious for the speakers in terms of cultural selection.
Those who belong to the high classes, and who have the adequate cultural instruments at their disposal to develop their own rational competencies, can, instead, reach this level of competence even independently of teaching.
The contents of this notebook Lo Piparo is right 55 cannot be read without taking into account the other prison notebooks, where Gramsci develops his political thought about the modalities in which organized workers can gain power in civil society and the modalities of exercising their ruling role before their complete conquest of state power.
Lo Piparo, David Forgacs and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, trans. It is hard to believe that Gramsci would find time to write such an essay in , the Linguistics and Marxism in the Thought of Antonio Gramsci 47 year in which the factories of Turin were occupied.
It has perhaps to be dated back to the year ; Leonardo Paggi, Antonio Gramsci e il moderno principe Rome: Editori Riuniti, , Guido Melis, ed.
See Melis, 44, LP1, For a different translation, see Antonio Gramsci, Letters from Prison, trans. Antonio Gramsci, Selections from Cultural Writings, ed.
William Boelhower Cambridge, Mass. SCW, SCW, 27, translation altered slightly. See Lo Piparo about the influence of Ascoli on the formation and thought of Gramsci.
Cited in Ambrosoli, Antonio Gramsci, Quaderni del Carcere, four volumes, ed. Lo Piparo, 49ff.
As the Soviet scholar E. Therefore, reelaborating the methodological questions of linguistics, Gramsci does not criticize the theories of the neo-grammarians as much as the reactionary conception of the so-called idealist neo-linguists.
In reality, the picture Gramsci had of the neogrammatical method derived, above all, from the terms of the polemic set up by Bartoli.
Gramsci was not exactly aware of the fact that there was not as great a distance between the neo-linguistic and neo-grammatical method as appeared on the level of militant polemic.
Leipzig: B. For a different translation, see SCW, Hermann Paul, Principien der Sprachgeschichte, fifth ed. Halle: Niemeyer, Strong London: wan Sonnenschein, Lowrey, Linguistics and Marxism in the Thought of Antonio Gramsci 49 Bertoni and Bartoli, This sociolinguistic thematic is broadly explored by De Mauro; however, Gramsci is only used marginally and only quoted twice.
Principi e plebe vengono qua: Madame de Tebe le carte fa. From hearts and spades anxious mouths often ask for truth Princes and commoners come Madame of Tebe reads the cards M.
Lombardo, Madame de Tebe1 1 Today, we can understand that the relevance of the amount of space Antonio Gramsci devoted to language [linguaggio] in his historical and theoretical reflections is not only biographical or quantitative.
There is a renewed need to understand the role and the limits of this specific linguistic interest with respect to his thought taken as a whole and to understand its vitality within the scholarship.
This interest is not exclusively Italian anymore. It is shared by linguistics internationally. It is not possible to substitute a Gramsci seen as entirely devoted to books of linguistics for the Gramsci seen as a mere Marxist ideologue that dominated the old vernacular gramsciology, or for the Gramsci seen as a pure politician that one can find in recent works.
Gramsci was conscious of this experience and he reflected on it, as evident in his notes on journalism.
This was an intense and original experience, as attested to by Paolo Spriano. In this respect, his was really and 54 Tullio De Mauro literally the non-erudite philosophy of a varied and direct praxis.
Gramsci writes: Manzoni asked himself: now that Italy is formed, how can the Italian language be created?
He answered: all Italians will have to speak Tuscan and the Italian state will have to recruit its elementary teachers in Tuscany.
Tuscan will be substituted for the numerous dialects spoken in the various regions and, with Italy formed, the Italian language will be formed too.
Manzoni managed to find government support and start the publication of a Novo dizionario which was supposed to contain the true Italian language.
But the Novo dizionario remained half-finished and teachers were recruited among educated people in all regions of Italy. It had transpired that a scholar of the history of the language, Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, had set some thirty pages against the hundreds of pages by Manzoni in order to demonstrate: that not even a national language can be created artificially, by order of the state; that the Italian language was being formed by itself and would be formed only in so far as the shared life of the nation gave rise to numerous and stable contacts between the various parts of the nation; that the spread of a particular language is due to the productive activity of the writings, trade and commerce of the people who speak that particular language.
With regard to this latter remark, however, it is necessary to make a twofold consideration. At this stage of his experience, Gramsci has already established, in an historical way, the terms of a certain dialectic between society and language to which he will later return.
To search for a model language is, then, to look for a motionless motion. It is not only without good reason that the most ardent supporter of this or that solution to the problem of the unity of the language [lingua] be it the adoption of a Latinate, fourteenth-century, or Florentine language, or whatever else when he comes to speak, in order to communicate his views and to make them understood, feels reluctant to apply his theories; since he senses that to substitute the Latin, fourteenth-century, or Florentine words for those of a different origin which correspond to his natural impressions, would be to falsify the genuine form of the truth; so that from being a speaker, he would become a conceited listener to himself, from a serious man, a pedant; from a sincere person, a histrionic one.
The question of the unity of language continually crops up because, as it is posed, it is insoluble, being founded on a false conception of what language is.
It is not an arsenal of beautiful finished weapons, and it is not a vocabulary, which is a collection of abstractions, that is to say, a cemetery of corpses more or less progressively updated.
We would not want, by this somewhat brusque way of cutting short the question of a model language, or of the unity of the language, to appear less than respectful to the great throng of writers, who have for centuries discussed it in Italy.
This volume, as is known, shocked Bartoli because it came close to plagiarizing him; he even recommended it to his students.
This version of the text was not changed in the subsequent editions published by Laterza. But in the first version , this passage is followed by one quoted below where Croce posited the premises for an historical rethinking of what the question of language had been.
In this earlier version, he writes with more vivacity and uses concrete and openly politico-social references, reminiscent of Pontano.
Here is the continuation of the passage quoted above from the version: [We would not want to appear less than respectful.
I will add that, in my opinion, the true problem troubling Manzoni was aesthetic and was not a problem of aesthetic science, of literature or of the theory of literature, of effective speaking and writing and not of linguistic science.
Rejecting this thesis does not mean affirming that Manzoni and his followers were working on an empty terrain. What was at stake were new impressions demanding new expressions.
Moreover, the question [of the unity of the language] that had been solved practically, remained theoretically unresolved or was badly resolved by means of the false conception that Florentine authors were the repository of the only real Italian linguistic tradition.
Anyone who speaks or writes in Italy nowadays has felt the effectiveness of the movement promoted by Manzoni; even his adversaries felt it.
As is the case. Three decades later, the linguist Alfredo Schiaffini and Antonio Gramsci find themselves far enough from those texts to consider the question of language with the detachment of the historian, in the former case in a specialized journal, Italia Dialettale [Italian Dialect], and the latter, notes written in prison.
The intention of historicizing the old question of language is present in both Gramsci and Schiaffini. They both highlight the objective components Language from Nature to History 57 of the discussions among the intelligentsia.
Moreover, as is known, the subsequent historical studies have deepened, specified, and confirmed the interpretive lines Schiaffini had enunciated.
What Gramsci attempted to elaborate in his mind during the period of his stay in Vienna and in Moscow, and during the rise of the PCI [the Italian Communist Party] was a general national Italian response to the dramatic demands of the international communist movement and of the forthcoming fascisms.
This general hypothesis can be integrated with other considerations that are more specifically connected to the questions regarding the relationships between language, nationality and classes, which have been recently and rightly pointed out by Giancarlo Schirru, a young scholar from Rome.
These questions are alive in international socialism in early s. These vital questions arise while the two great multilingual Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires are collapsing and new nationalities and languages are acquiring relevance, and while the Soviet Union starts a great alphabetization process of its population targeting the most disparate languages spoken in the country.
All these 58 Tullio De Mauro languages are transformed from being almost exclusively oral to also being written languages.
The alphabetization process occurs starting from the written languages and only later from the teaching of the Russian language.
It must be noted that William McKey and Miguel Siguan, two of the major scholars of the processes of alphabetization in bilingual areas, have recently stressed, in Bilinguisme et Education [Bilingualism and Education], what I have always held: the great experience of the Soviet linguistico-scholastic politics is an exemplary one.
Thanks to these techniques history is constructed on the basis of nature. Starting from the vital natural base, human beings become historical subjects thanks to these techniques.
A chaos, i. What Gramsci wants to investigate passionately and enlighten us by teaching is the nexus and the circularity of these elements: that is, the capability of transforming raw materials into new products.
This means that, for Gramsci, the economic-productive element is interwoven with the element of invention and cultural elaboration, and both cannot subsist without being woven into the capability of linguistic elaboration and communication and with the construction of life in common in both the ethnic and national dimensions of life.
Within this circle, which is vital for individuals and society, language and linguistic conformism constitute only one link; although the circle is broken without it.
Croce, pushed by dramatic theoretically external factors of the fight against the obtuse savagery of fascism and Nazism, will follow Gramsci along this path, even though much later.
The latter is always a political act and, if adequate, leads to the constitution of more or less temporary written national languages.
Whereas one can observe a neverending mobility of immanent grammars in Saussure, even though concealed by the apparent inertness of written languages with respect to the vital and primary self-making and -unmaking of spoken langue; one can observe a neverending mobility of political situations and of the political effects springing out of the constitution of relatively inert written languages, which emerge by historic-political necessity from the mobile dynamics related to the permanent innovativeness of speaking.
It is not correct to say that these discussions were useless and have not left traces in modern culture, even if the traces are modest.
Over the Language from Nature to History 61 last century a unified culture has in fact been extended, and therefore also a common unified language.
But the entire historical formation of the Italian nation moved at too slow a pace. Today, as I was recalling at the beginning of this piece, these questions are being translated into other languages and appear to have a broader attraction for those who work in the educative dimension or attend to theoretical studies on language and culture: like the tongue in cheek refrain, which Gramsci loved, Princes and people come: Madame of Tebe reads the cards.
Quoted in M. Harro Stammerjohann, ed. Croce, Tesi Fondamentali, See Croce, The Aesthetic, Translation altered.
There is a radical rupture with the tradition of positivist and neo-grammatical tradition in this metaphor, in a historical moment of both very dense theoretical and meta-theoretical reflection, where linguistics starts to constitute itself as science, while including itself in the class of the semiological disciplines.
For the neo-grammarians, in fact, the society-language pair, though ever reaffirmed, did not go beyond the borders of a conventional and, therefore, a substantially static relationship.
In this relationship, languages, as given entities, are placed alongside human communities, which nominally and mechanically signify them.
This collectivity is the real historical agent that continuously establishes, disaggregates and reaggregates, the functional relationship of value within the linguistic system through social practices, in which the infinite individual linguistic acts paroles intertwine.
It can even seem odd rereading certain pages of the Course that, to some materialistically oriented authoritative scholars, the lesson of the master from Geneva may have appeared tarnished by idealistic abstractness.
The living world of historico-natural languages fades into a neutral balance of calculations. The dialectical nature of the relationship individuals-society parolelanguage[lingua] , which Saussure viewed as an always opened weaving between regularities and infractions and of innovation and conformism,4 is destroyed and flattened on the level of abstract competence, which must be presupposed as innate in the biological sense, in order to assure communication.
In this way, however, both Noam Chomsky and his followers went back to that kind of despised empiricism which some had wanted to free linguistic science from forever.
It seems to me, however, that one can find a rather interesting politico-cultural problem in the backdrop of these theoretical phenomena.
Yet one can well suspect that Chomsky remains fully within the ideological schemes of the traditional separation of the intellectual from society, despite the merits he acquired through his generous democratic and anti-imperialist struggle.
On the other hand, the academic profession of a linguist is removed from social tensions in principle. For Chomsky, the formal aspect of theory and the isolated condition of the American intellectual truly seem to come together and designate in their own way, a less than brief epoch of the culture of linguistics in these years.
The Chomskian revolution consisted in what has been said above, socially and theoretically. This is not the place to recall the intoxication of scientism and formalism that this revolution has brought not only to the United States, but also to some European universities, including Italian ones.
Moreover, many European universities and some of the Italian ones that were intoxicated by this linguistic formalism and by scientism, while looking for mediations with other cultural currents, have not succeeded in overcoming the perfect and yet unacceptable rigor of the American master.
Yet the situation is clearly changing today. It is vital that we focus on two of these points. The various imprints of objectivism and organicism characterize not only linguistic structuralism, but, among other things, many of its transpositions in the arena of literary criticism derived from this theoretical equivocation.
It is impossible to determine what the structure of a language is without broaching the question how that structure functions, since language has no structure independent of the process.
I am alluding to his proposal of substantially reformulating linguistics as a branch of psychology. The volume Per Saussure contro Saussure17 [For Saussure against Saussure], by Annibale Elia, can be useful to broaden the horizon and clarify the contorted cultural itinerary of the linguistic sciences in this century.
The theoretical value of these two instances is certainly very different, but the results that each of them achieves are not dissimilar.
After all, the project of the GGT brings to its extreme consequences the goal that characterized various sectors of language research, not solely the American.
In different spheres, linguistic theories have run across the uncomfortable world of social phenomena.
But this is not the point. In other words, the nature of language is intrinsically informal, specifically, social and manipulative.
To tighten the various separate and wandering threads of this discussion, we will use the assistance of the important work, Lingua, Intellettuali, Egemonia in Gramsci28 [Language, Intellectuals, Hegemony in Gramsci] by Franco Lo Piparo, with an engaging preface by Tullio De Mauro.
In this essay the object of analysis is pushed back or rather qualitatively modified. The object does not concern university professors, but a politician and great intellectual [Antonio Gramsci]: a theoretician and strategist of the proletarian revolution in the West.
What is the meaning, or meanings, of this type of change of analysis? Language appears as the real terrain where civil and political society intersect, as the site of socialization or separation of experiences, knowledge and needs.
Likewise, language appears as the decisive dimension of politico-cultural stratification of the class system that crosses and defines the ways of thinking and feeling of entire populations from common sense to scientific theories of reality.
In this way, Lo Piparo both connects the case of Gramsci in the contemporary theoretical dispute, which is internal to linguistic sciences, and launches it again into the more complex historico-political debate, which, for several years, has characterized the reflections of Marxists in and outside of Italy.
Lo Piparo reconstructs with great care the materials that Gramsci certainly read and those that he probably read. This is how Lo Piparo puts the synthesis: A solid theoretical chain in which every link that is necessary is formed by the theoretical and methodological study of comparative linguistics i.
The same problem is at stake in all four topics: how a nation-people-state is formed and organized and what invisible threads give rise to and unite it.
Yet maybe Lo Piparo did not develop some possibilities that his analysis opened. This is partly due to the specific delimitation of his project.
The notion of hegemony must always be considered in relation to the background only of what, according to me, is decisive for a man like Gramsci, namely, that he is first of all a political leader.
A propos, what must be taken into account is the concrete historical situation Gramsci faced, the immense structural and institutional transformations of the s and s together with the rise of state capitalism, the new articulations coming to light within the range of the intellectual functions, Linguistics and the Political Question of Language 73 and the necessity to elevate at these levels the struggle of the communists.
The notion of hegemony progressively acquires more and more definition within this situation, namely, in a very complex weave of historical analysis, theoretical reflection, and revolutionary planning.
He argued that Leninism taught the leader of the Italian working class the full primacy of politics, which was a decisive theoretico-practical direction for the Italian working class that had been closed in the impasse occurring between Reformism and Maximalism.
What has been learned after Gramsci on some points should also be stressed. Therefore, Gramsci sees the dialects as destined to be overcome by the national language during its expansive stage that will occur within an overall politico-cultural rise of the working classes.
Today, after the experiences of this century, we regard the question of dialects in a different fashion, both at the politico-institutional and at the scholastic level.
There is a growing possibility of the consolidation of the dialects and of cultural expansion that would be part of a conquest of the major means of communication and of culture, and therefore, above all, of a national language even today only 25 percent of the Italians claim to always use the Italian language in and outside their homes.
The second implication concerns a more theoretical level. Classic names can be listed again like Saussure; the great Soviet psychologist, Lev S.
They provide the trajectory of work in which Gramsci has the place of a master who tends to place the reflection on language in the perspective of an intrinsically critical and sociohistorical science.
It is also valuable to the extent that it presents an object of political analysis and an objective to work on. I believe that this leads to a stagnation of our capabilities to relate to reality and therefore to transform it.
Thus, what Gramsci writes in a crucial moment of his reflection in prison should be reread.
Linguistics and the Political Question of Language 77 2. Tullio De Mauro Bari: Laterza, Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics, ed.
Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye, trans. Chomsky, Intervista, Bruce L. The citations are from K. See the classical work by C.
Shannon and W. Derwing, Skinner, Verbal Behavior, now included in the reading of F. Antinucci and C. An instance of the importance of the psychological ground for linguistic facts should be noted in the work of a great student of Vygotskij, A.
Trubetzkoy, Principles of Phonology, trans. Elia, Labov, Simone and G. Ruggiero Rome: Bulzoni, The contributions by Luigi Rosiello are, among these exceptions, of particular relevance.
His first one was delivered at the Conference on Gramsci in Valentino Gerratana Turin: Einaudi, , ff. See, for example, R.
Its goal is to create class environments where reciprocal listening and authentic communication between children and teachers can occur, in order to promote global development.
Among the founders and members of the MCE were teachers and educators like: G. Tamagnini, A. Fantini, A. Pettini, E. Codignola and later B.
Ciari, M. Lodi and many others see www. The CIDI is an association of teachers from all kinds and levels of schools and disciplines that works to reform the education system.
Its objective is to realize a democratic school attentive to the cultural needs of the students see www. See also E. Stefano Gensini and M.
The data on literacy that I cited i. Antonio Gramsci, Selections from Prison Notebooks, ed. Like all cultural approaches, they meet the suspicion of displacing the primacy of the social question.
Reprinted with the kind permission of the publishing house. Translated by Peter Thomas. This discursive constellation can be traced back to the First International: political reflection or the attempt to elaborate its scientific-analytical foundation was at that time determined by the reaction to romantic-lyrical nationalism, above all in student circles, which sought a point of departure for a new political organization in linguistic criteria.
Here, Marx recognized a relative dead weight of cultural organizational forms. In the case of the Irish question, this even provoked him to an outburst of free trade dogma.
At the same time, analysis of the real difficulties of political-revolutionary undertakings above all, consideration of the Paris Commune led him to pose concrete political organization as an important question.
In the Second International, questions of culture moved into the foreground. However, they were always posed with a view to the world revolution: in the meantime, mobilizing as well as hindering cultural factors, including linguistic differences, were to be accommodated.
What one finds here are rather helpless recourses to citations from the classics with more or less moral-opportunistic concessions on the organizational-strategic level.
Gramsci brought particular presuppositions to this undertaking. He could thus treat his analytical undertaking as a working out of his own subjective contradictions.
His remarks must therefore be read in their particular context and should not be used as familiar quotations.
Until the very end, he had a plan for a historical-linguistic sociological presentation of Sardinian. The pedagogical discussion of the late nineteenth century, however, knew better: even if it usually did not put in question the high or literary languages high German, high French, etc.
In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, these methodological considerations were extended with the methodology of comparative linguistics and in particular their application to linguistic geography.
On the side of the linguists, Graziadio Isaia Ascoli took up a position that brought to bear for Italy what were then the leading developments of German linguistics neo-grammarians.
In opposition, Ascoli provided a consistent linguisticsociological argumentation. He showed that behind and within the question of the choice of the linguistic form there was the social problem of the socialization of education, in the foreground of which was the literacy of the great popular masses.
Looking to historical development in Germany, Ascoli propagated literacy on the basis of the spontaneous language of the learner.
He began from the supposition that becoming literate for example, in a dialect could be carried over to another language the national language unproblematically, because he saw in general the elaboration of a normative literary language as the endpoint of such a development.
Linguistic relations in Italy are distinguished by the extreme dialectal oppositions between north and south. Finally, the prestige-charged Tuscan literary dialect, in the wake of Dante and completely detached from the development of linguistic relations, functions as an additional factor hindering a national development, because reference to it explicitly excluded the real social centers of Rome and the north Italian industrial zones from the high cultural horizon.
This confused cultural situation correlated with one of the highest rates of illiteracy in Europe. In the s, language pedagogy finally officially changed to the use of the dialectal resources of the students.
Linguistic form must be created after and then further developed in a creative process. He knew these problems as lived problems; this disrupts the extent of his Croceanism from the beginning.
As a Sardinian who had to make his career in Italy at the expense of his own language, he had to live out these tensions himself.
Stimulated by his teacher, Bartoli, he made it the object of his early scientific work his early letters home to his family in Sardinia contain detailed questions regarding his home dialect.
Time and again he interspersed Sardinian expressions in these letters: whether in an excurse about dialect names for lizards in a letter to Tatiana June 2, ; as intimate greetings to his son, Giuliano; but above all in the letters to his mother or those that are related to his mother, particularly her culinary specialties.
These letters, which were after all 86 Utz Maas written as texts for readers, have in this regard perhaps a heavier weight than the notes in the Prison Notebooks.
He prided himself on having rehearsed Sardinian songs with his son, Delio. In the same letter to Teresina of March 26, , he disapproved of his niece, Edmea, for not being able to speak Sardinian unlike his nephews.
In certain aspects, these practical problems of the International were reflected in the abstract way in which linguistic questions were articulated in programmatic expressions.
These projects were nurtured by a multiplicity of projects for an international language, among which Esperanto was only one.
In the Roman federations such efforts had a certain significance; Gramsci also had to deal with them in his Turin section.
In a polemical article of against the Esperanto movement, he explicitly makes recourse to the authority of linguistics.
This can only be a formal state instrument of oppression Gramsci takes aim here explicitly at purist attempts to exclude the variety of dialects.
Here there is also the notion of language as expression of lived experiences, already noted above.
Instead of making the linguistic form an ostensible problem, it must be a case of building up a new culture that entails a correspondingly new language.
However, Gramsci displaces the problem not simply from the ostensible formal debate to the underlying social question. Rather, he is interested in the cultural determinations lying in the linguistic form.
He continued this interest also in prison. The continuity of his thoughts, but also the clarity he gained, is demonstrated when, for example, he writes in Notebook Someone who only speaks dialect, or understands the standard language incompletely, necessarily has an intuition of the world which is more or less limited and provincial, which is fossilised and anachronistic in relation to the major currents of thought which dominate world history.
Universal in this sense, however, does not mean formally the same for all. Culture is for Gramsci in this sense linked to linguistic translatability, which for him, to a certain extent, by definition only occurs between national languages, related to the universal contents that are articulated in culturally specific forms.
For the dialects, as symbolic expression of particular cultural praxes, that is excluded. In order to do this he uses the vitalizing terms of lived praxis: the life of language and organic cohesion.
The linguistic-political question was presented to him not as a decision between competing linguistic forms or varieties, but rather as work on the language, as working out of the potential of spontaneous linguistic forms and thus at the same time as their valorization.
The dialect is not to be repressed, but also not to be jumped over. The elaboration of language is therefore for him necessarily linked to the socialist social project.
Lived experience is the necessary point of departure for any educational work and thus also for any linguistic work.
Rendering coherent spontaneous philosophy, the philosophy of the nonphilosophers, can only succeed through objectivization in language [linguaggio].
This is the reason for the close linkage of language and writing, in opposition to dialects: the communal praxis of oral conversation is embedded in the flux of the immediate happening, of the interactive constellation.
Only through the objectivization of language in writing do the heterogeneous moments become comprehensible and linguistic critique becomes accessible.
Praxis necessarily contains moments that exceed its externally determined organization in the reproduction process; liberated praxis develops these surplus moments.
They are thus pressured into forms of self-organization thus also to a transformation of the language praxis on the job , which tendentiously increases their access to moments of the social organization of labor.
They become intellectuals, who shape the forms of labor organization in employment itself: liberation of labor, valorization of labor as intellectual and liberation of language constitute a situation whose realization is only possible in communism.
Nevertheless, we still should not expect to find a closed theoretical system. One must work out his linguistic theory to a certain extent against the written word.
In this context, language praxis spoken language becomes comprehensible as an exceptional moment. Labor is determined by, respectively, the relations of production and the culture linked with them.
In a very optimistic argument that sounds like something from the Proletkult, Gramsci comprehends the development of capitalism as an increasing displacement of organizing activities into production itself.
Capitalist property and domination relations, however, in the end prevent the realization of the free disposal of intelligence in the production process, because the state power apparatus secures external determination in production; the final liberation of labor is therefore only possible as a form of liberated living together he speaks expressly of convivenza umana 36 in communist society.
Intelligence stands here against the purely instrumental dimensions of the labor process operare tecnicamente, industrialmente , for the moment of autonomy.
In the later works, Gramsci then grasped the analysis of the industrial labor process more realistically and defined the analytic concept of intelligence more exactly.
Where this is externally determined, the potential of the language is reduced to the more or less ritualized reproduction of forms of intercourse.
It is otherwise if the relations are not reproduced behind the backs of the subjects, but are instead controlled by them. A symbolic control is then particularly necessary, if, as in more developed social forms with a developed social division of labor, the relations are not immediately manageable, but only become accessible through a symbolic synthesis.
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