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Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'valley' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für valley im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. We had hoped to get into cooler zones beyond Death Valley but it did not happen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für valley im Online-Wörterbuch sattvabageri.se (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'valley' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
Übersetzung für 'valley' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für valley im Online-Wörterbuch sattvabageri.se (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung im Kontext von „in a valley“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: The site is in a valley with lovely views of the Großvenediger and.
Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success.
On August 23, , the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gate , signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish—American War in Baugh…" He says, "In , the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community.
It was known as the Inner Station; the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs.
According to Arbuckle p. Allen and C. Delays to construction occurred until September ; but, "…San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October The line was completed when [James] Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October In , Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose.
Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the Navy in Navy blimps were based there.
Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms, such as Lockheed , which was Silicon Valley's largest employer from the s into s.
William Eitel, Jack McCullough, and Charles Litton , who together pioneered vacuum tube manufacturing in the Bay Area, were hobbyists with training in technology gained locally who participated in the development of shortwave radio by the ham radio hobby.
High frequency , and especially, Very high frequency , VHF, transmission in the meter band, required higher quality power tubes than were manufactured by the consortium of RCA, Western Electric, General Electric, Westinghouse which controlled vacuum tube manufacture.
Litton, founder of Litton Industries , pioneered manufacturing techniques which resulted in the award of wartime contracts to manufacture transmitting tubes for radar to Eitel-McCullough , a San Bruno firm, which manufactured power-grid tubes for radio amateurs and aircraft radio equipment.
A union organizing drive in —40 at Eitel-McCullough by the strong Bay Area labor movement was fought off by adoption of a strategy of welfare capitalism which included pensions and other generous benefits, profit sharing, and such extras as a medical clinic and a cafeteria.
An atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration was established. On October 4, the Soviet Union launched the first space satellite, Sputnik , which sparked fear that the Soviet Union was pulling ahead technologically.
After President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act NASA , he turned to Fairchild Semiconductor , [ further explanation needed ] then the only company in the world that was able to make transistors.
The president funded Fairchild's project, [ further explanation needed ] which was highly successful.
Stanford University , its affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in the development of this area. A very powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon Valley.
From the s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the American West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient local industry.
Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon Valley's development.
After World War II, Frederick Terman , as Stanford University's dean of the school of engineering, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies.
Shockley's work served as the basis for many electronic developments for decades. During —85, solid state technology research and development at Stanford University followed three waves of industrial innovation made possible by support from private corporations, mainly Bell Telephone Laboratories , Shockley Semiconductor , Fairchild Semiconductor , and Xerox PARC.
After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due to returning students. To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students, Frederick Terman proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park later Stanford Research Park in the year Leases were limited to high technology companies.
Its first tenant was Varian Associates , founded by Stanford alumni in the s to build military radar components.
However, Terman also found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups. One of the major success stories was Hewlett-Packard.
In , Stanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the University on a part-time basis.
The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs.
Hewlett-Packard has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first thermal drop-on-demand ink jet printer in Up until the late s, germanium was the dominant semiconductor material for transistors and other semiconductor devices.
Germanium was initially considered the more effective semiconductor material, as it was able to demonstrate better performance due to higher carrier mobility.
In , William Shockley left Bell Labs in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the bipolar transistor. Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors.
Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design today known as the Shockley diode , but the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor.
In , Shockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result of Shockley's abusive management style, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor ; Shockley referred to them as the " traitorous eight ".
In , Mohamed Atalla at Bell Labs developed the process of silicon surface passivation by thermal oxidation ,    which electrically stabilized silicon surfaces  and reduced the concentration of electronic states at the surface.
On April 23, , J. It rescheduled a meeting in Palo Alto regarding his vision of a computer network, which he imagined as an electronic commons open to all, the main and essential medium of informational interaction for governments, institutions, corporations, and individuals.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of and other factors such as the mass exodus by Vietnamese boat people resulted in significant immigration, particularly by Asians, Latinos, and Portuguese, to Silicon Valley where they contributed to both the high-tech and production workforce.
The Homebrew Computer Club was an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and technically minded hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, circuits , and information pertaining to DIY construction of computing devices.
They both were interested in maintaining a regular, open forum for people to get together to work on making computers more accessible to everyone.
By the early s, there were many semiconductor companies in the area, computer firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both.
Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. Since the s, Silicon Valley has been home to the largest concentration of venture capital firms in the world.
In Don Hoefler traced the origins of Silicon Valley firms, including via investments from Fairchild 's eight co-founders.
Prior to , most Northern California lawyers were based in San Francisco, especially the experienced patent attorneys whom the high-tech industry needed to protect its intellectual property.
During the s, lawyers began to follow venture capitalists down the Peninsula to serve the booming high-tech industry in Silicon Valley.
Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet services.
Silicon Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, software , and user interfaces. Xerox hired some of Engelbart's best researchers beginning in the early s.
While Xerox marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere.
In , commercial use of the Internet grew substantially and the initial wave of internet startups, Amazon. Silicon Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubble , which started in the mids and collapsed after the NASDAQ stock market began to decline dramatically in April During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels.
For a brief time, Sand Hill Road was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion.
After the dot-com crash, Silicon Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world.
A The Wall Street Journal story found that 12 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon Valley.
The San Francisco Bay Area has the largest concentration of high-tech companies in the United States , at , high-tech jobs, of which Silicon Valley accounts for , high-tech jobs.
Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing centre in the United States.
Manufacture of transistors is, or was, the core industry in Silicon Valley. The production workforce  was for the most part composed of Asian and Latino immigrants who were paid low wages and worked in hazardous conditions due to the chemicals used in the manufacture of integrated circuits.
Technical, engineering, design, and administrative staffs were in large part  well compensated.
Silicon Valley has a severe housing shortage , caused by the market imbalance between jobs created and housing units built: from to , many more jobs have been created than housing units built.
The Economist also attributes the high cost of living to the success of the industries in this region. Although, this rift between high and low salaries is driving many residents out who can no longer afford to live there.
Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley. Among those, the following are in the Fortune :.
Additional notable companies headquartered or with a significant presence in Silicon Valley include some defunct or subsumed :. Depending on what geographic regions are included in the meaning of the term, the population of Silicon Valley is between 3.
A study by AnnaLee Saxenian for the Public Policy Institute of California reported that a third of Silicon Valley scientists and engineers were immigrants and that nearly a quarter of Silicon Valley's high-technology firms since were run by Chinese 17 percent or Indian descent CEOs 7 percent.
This income and range of assets will support a middle-class lifestyle in Silicon Valley. In November , the University of California, Davis released a report analyzing business leadership by women within the state.
Silicon Valley tech leadership positions are occupied almost exclusively by men. Wadhwa said he believes that a contributing factor is a lack of parental encouragement to study science and engineering.
In , tech companies Google, Yahoo! Rodgers has argued against Jackson's assertions. As of October , some high-profile Silicon Valley firms were working actively to prepare and recruit women.
Bloomberg reported that Apple, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft attended the 20th annual Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing conference to actively recruit and potentially hire female engineers and technology experts.
A January issue of Newsweek magazine featured an article detailing reports of sexism and misogyny in Silicon Valley.
Silicon Valley firms' board of directors are composed of The lawsuit Pao v. On March 27, the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts.
Funding for public schools in upscale Silicon Valley communities such as Woodside is often supplemented by grants from private foundations set up for that purpose and funded by local residents.
Schools in less affluent areas such as East Palo Alto must depend on state funding. The following Santa Clara County cities are traditionally considered to be in Silicon Valley in alphabetical order : [ citation needed ].
In , MIT researchers developed a novel method for measuring which towns are home to startups with higher growth potential and this defines Silicon Valley to center on the municipalities of Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale.
In , Intelligent Machines Journal changed its name to InfoWorld , and, with offices in Palo Alto , began covering the emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley.
Local and national media cover Silicon Valley and its companies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the high-tech hub of the Bay Area.
For the geographical valley, see Santa Clara Valley. For other uses, see Silicon Valley disambiguation.
Region in California, United States. Main articles: Silicon and History of the transistor. Main article: Invention of the integrated circuit.
Main article: Microcomputer revolution. Main article: Internet. Main article: dot-com bubble. See also: Category:Companies based in Silicon Valley.
Adobe Inc. Apple Inc. Synnex Synopsys Tesla, Inc. Twitter Western Digital Xilinx. Zoom Zynga. Atherton is the most expensive place to live in the United States.
Los Altos is the 3rd most expensive zip code in the United States. Palo Alto is the 5th most educated city  and the 5th most expensive zip code in the United States.
Morgan Hill is the 17th most expensive place to live in the United States. Los Gatos is the 33rd wealthiest city in the United States.
Saratoga is the 16th most educated and the 8th wealthiest city in the United States. See also: Occupational inequality and Sexism in the technology industry.
Stanford University , 20 mi 30 km outside of San Jose, is one of the top universities in the world.
See also: List of attractions in Silicon Valley. San Francisco Bay Area portal. List of attractions in Silicon Valley List of places with "Silicon" names around the world List of research parks around the world List of technology centers around the world Semiconductor industry STEM fields.
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Archived from the original on January 1, The co-inventor of the transistor and the founder of the valley's first chip company, William Shockley, moved to Palo Alto, Calif.
Stanford Computer Forum. Carolyn Terman. Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved December 10, Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved January 8, Archived from the original on April 28, Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved March 29, World Scientific.
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Silicon Valley Historical Association. Archived from the original on April 2, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved September 10, MIT Press.
Archived from the original on February 17, Proceedings of the IEEE. Archived PDF from the original on October 27, Those of us active in silicon material and device research during — considered this successful effort by the Bell Labs group led by Atalla to stabilize the silicon surface the most important and significant technology advance, which blazed the trail that led to silicon integrated circuit technology developments in the second phase and volume production in the third phase.
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Archived from the original on June 4, Retrieved November 3, Baldwin Valley. Balham Valley. Barwick Valley. Danube valley.
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