Spanische inquisition

Spanische Inquisition Auf die Streckbank folgten Autodafé und Scheiterhaufen

Die Spanische Inquisition (spanisch Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición) war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur. Die Spanische Inquisition war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur Bekämpfung der Häresie in Spanien. Sie existierte formal von – mit Unterbrechungen zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts – bis auf Betreiben der katholischen Könige Isabella von Kastilien und Ferdinand von Aragon die Einrichtung einer Inquisition in Spanien. Dominikanermönche wurden. Die Spanische Inquisition in Spanien wurde im Jahrhundert unter den Katholischen Königen Isabella und Ferdinand eingeführt. Spaniens Inquisition hat rund Menschen das Leben gekostet. Ein Blick in die Religionsgeschichte des Landes.

spanische inquisition

Spaniens Inquisition hat rund Menschen das Leben gekostet. Ein Blick in die Religionsgeschichte des Landes. auf Betreiben der katholischen Könige Isabella von Kastilien und Ferdinand von Aragon die Einrichtung einer Inquisition in Spanien. Dominikanermönche wurden. Die Spanische Inquisition (spanisch Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición) war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur.

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Jewish Practice. Tortures If the Inquisitors could not obtain a confession from a suspected heretic, they employed torture to extract one.

Punishments The penalties imposed by the Inquisition included monetary fines, confiscation of all property, public humiliation, and flogging.

Torquemada In , Queen Isabella's personal confessor, the Dominican priest Tomas de Torquemada, was appointed head of the Inquisition.

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Browse Book. More in this section The Spanish Expulsion. The Beginning of the End. You may also be interested in Is there a ban on living in Spain?

What Happened on the Ninth of Av? The End of Spanish Jewry. Adolescents were generally punished more leniently than adults, but only when they were very young under ca.

As a rule, the Inquisition condemned to death only those sodomites over the age of 25 years. As about half of those tried were under this age, it explains the relatively small percentage of death sentences.

It is important to notice that cases of sodomy did not receive the same treatment in all areas of Spain. In the Kingdom of Castile crimes of sodomy were not investigated by the Inquisition unless they were associated with religious heresy In other words, the sodomy itself was investigated only as, and when, considered a symptom of a heretic belief or practice.

In any other area cases were considered an issue of civil authorities, and even then was not very actively investigated. The Crown of Aragon was the only area in which they were considered under the Inquisitorial jurisdiction, probably due to the previous presence of the Pontifical Inquisition in that kingdom.

Within the Crown of Aragon, the tribunal of the city of Zaragoza was famously harsh even at the time. It was seen as a symptom of them more than as a condition or peculiarity in itself.

The Roman Catholic Church has regarded Freemasonry as heretical since about ; the suspicion of Freemasonry was potentially a capital offense.

Spanish Inquisition records reveal two prosecutions in Spain and only a few more throughout the Spanish Empire.

As one manifestation of the Counter-Reformation , the Spanish Inquisition worked actively to impede the diffusion of heretical ideas in Spain by producing "Indexes" of prohibited books.

Such lists of prohibited books were common in Europe a decade before the Inquisition published its first. The first Index published in Spain in was, in reality, a reprinting of the Index published by the University of Leuven in , with an appendix dedicated to Spanish texts.

Subsequent Indexes were published in , , , , and Included in the Indices, at one point, were some of the great works of Spanish literature , but most of the works were religious in nature and plays.

At first, this might seem counter-intuitive or even nonsensical—how were these Spanish authors published in the first place if their texts were then prohibited by the Inquisition and placed in the Index?

The answer lies in the process of publication and censorship in Early Modern Spain. Books in Early Modern Spain faced prepublication licensing and approval which could include modification by both secular and religious authorities.

However, once approved and published, the circulating text also faced the possibility of post-hoc censorship by being denounced to the Inquisition—sometimes decades later.

Likewise, as Catholic theology evolved, once-prohibited texts might be removed from the Index. At first, inclusion in the Index meant total prohibition of a text; however, this proved not only impractical and unworkable but also contrary to the goals of having a literate and well-educated clergy.

Works with one line of suspect dogma would be prohibited in their entirety, despite the orthodoxy of the remainder of the text. In time, a compromise solution was adopted in which trusted Inquisition officials blotted out words, lines or whole passages of otherwise acceptable texts, thus allowing these expurgated editions to circulate.

Although in theory, the Indexes imposed enormous restrictions on the diffusion of culture in Spain, some historians argue that such strict control was impossible in practice and that there was much more liberty in this respect than is often believed.

And Irving Leonard has conclusively demonstrated that, despite repeated royal prohibitions, romances of chivalry, such as Amadis of Gaul , found their way to the New World with the blessing of the Inquisition.

Moreover, with the coming of the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, increasing numbers of licenses to possess and read prohibited texts were granted.

Despite the repeated publication of the Indexes and a large bureaucracy of censors, the activities of the Inquisition did not impede the development of Spanish literature's "Siglo de Oro", although almost all of its major authors crossed paths with the Holy Office at one point or another.

La Celestina , which was not included in the Indexes of the 16th century , was expurgated in and prohibited in its entirety in Some scholars state that one of the main effects of the inquisition was to end free thought and scientific thought in Spain.

As one contemporary Spaniard in exile put it: "Our country is a land of pride and envy Thus silence was imposed on the learned.

The censorship of books was actually very ineffective, and prohibited books circulated in Spain without significant problems. The Spanish Inquisition never persecuted scientists , and relatively few scientific books were placed on the Index.

On the other hand, Spain was a state with more political freedom than in other absolute monarchies in the 16th to 18th centuries.

The list of banned books was not, as interpreted sometimes, a list of evil books but a list of books that lay people were very likely to misinterpret.

The presence of highly symbolical and high-quality literature on the list was so explained. These metaphorical or parable sounding books were listed as not meant for free circulation, but there might be no objections to the book itself and the circulation among scholars was mostly free.

Most of these books were carefully collected by the elite. The practical totality of the prohibited books can be found now as then in the library of the monasterio del Escorial , carefully collected by Philip II and Philip III.

The collection was "public" after Philip II's death and members of universities, intellectuals, courtesans, clergy, and certain branches of the nobility didn't have too many problems to access them and commission authorised copies.

The Inquisition has not been known to make any serious attempt to stop this for all the books, but there are some records of them "suggesting" the King of Spain to stop collecting grimoires or magic-related ones.

This attitude was also not new. The first preserved copy dates from the 13th century. However, like the bible of Cisneros they were mostly for scholarly use, and it was customary for laymen to ask religious or academic authorities to review the translation and supervise the use.

The Inquisition also pursued offenses against morals and general social order, at times in open conflict with the jurisdictions of civil tribunals.

In the case of men, the penalty was two hundred lashes and five to ten years of "service to the Crown". Said service could be whatever the court deemed most beneficial for the nation but it usually was either five years as an oarsman in a royal galley for those without any qualification [94] possibly a death sentence , [95] or ten years working maintained but without salary in a public Hospital or charitable institution of the sort for those with some special skill, such as doctors, surgeons, or lawyers.

Under the category of "unnatural marriage" fell any marriage or attempted marriage between two individuals who could not procreate. The Catholic Church in general, and in particular a nation constantly at war like Spain, [97] [98] emphasised the reproductive goal of marriage.

The Spanish Inquisition's policy in this regard was restrictive but applied in a very egalitarian way. It considered unnatural any non-reproductive marriage, and natural any reproductive one, regardless of gender or sex involved.

Female sterility was also a reason to declare a marriage unnatural but was harder to prove. Despite popular belief, the role of the Inquisition as a mainly religious institution, or religious in nature at all, is contested at best.

Its main function was that of private police for the Crown with jurisdiction to enforce the law in those crimes that took place in the private sphere of life.

The notion of religion and civil law being separate is a modern construction and made no sense in the 15th century, so there was no difference between breaking a law regarding religion and breaking a law regarding tax collection.

The difference between them is a modern projection the institution itself did not have. As such, the Inquisition was the prosecutor in some cases the only prosecutor of any crimes that could be perpetrated without the public taking notice mainly domestic crimes, crimes against the weakest members of society, administrative crimes and forgeries, organized crime, and crimes against the Crown.

Examples include crimes associated with sexual or family relations such as rape and sexual violence the Inquisition was the first and only body who punished it across the nation , bestiality , pedophilia often overlapping with sodomy , incest , child abuse or neglect and as discussed bigamy.

Non-religious crimes also included procurement not prostitution , human trafficking , smuggling , forgery or falsification of currency , documents or signatures , tax fraud many religious crimes were considered subdivisions of this one , illegal weapons , swindles , disrespect to the Crown or its institutions the Inquisition included, but also the church, the guard, and the kings themselves , espionage for a foreign power, conspiracy , treason.

The non-religious crimes processed by the Inquisition accounted for a considerable percentage of its total investigations and are often hard to separate in the statistics, even when documentation is available.

The line between religious and non-religious crimes did not exist in 15th century Spain as legal concept. Many of the crimes listed here and some of the religious crimes listed in previous sections were contemplated under the same article.

For example, "sodomy" included paedophilia as a subtype. Often part of the data given for prosecution of male homosexuality corresponds to convictions for paedophilia, not adult homosexuality.

In other cases, religious and non-religious crimes were seen as distinct but equivalent. The treatment of public blasphemy and street swindlers was similar since in both cases you are "misleading the public in a harmful way.

Making counterfeit currency and heretic proselytism was also treated similarly; both of them were punished by death and subdivided in similar ways since both were "spreading falsifications".

In general heresy and falsifications of material documents were treated similarly by the Spanish Inquisition, indicating that they may have been thought of as equivalent actions.

Another difficulty to discriminate the inquisition's secular and religious activity is the common association of certain types of investigations.

An accusation or suspicion on certain crime often launched an automatic investigation on many others. Anyone accused of espionage due to non-religious reasons would likely be investigated for heresy too, and anyone suspected of a heresy associated to a foreign power would be investigated for espionage too automatically.

Likewise, some religious crimes were considered likely to be associated with non-religious crimes, like human trafficking, procurement, and child abuse was expected to be associated to sodomy, or sodomy was expected to be associated to heresy and false conversions.

Which accusation started the investigation isn't always clear. Finally, trials were often further complicated by the attempts of witnesses or victims to add further charges, especially witchcraft.

Beyond its role in religious affairs, the Inquisition was also an institution at the service of the monarchy. The Inquisitor General, in charge of the Holy Office, was designated by the crown.

The Inquisitor General was the only public office whose authority stretched to all the kingdoms of Spain including the American viceroyalties , except for a brief period — during which there were two Inquisitors General, one in the kingdom of Castile, and the other in Aragon.

The Inquisitor General presided over the Council of the Supreme and General Inquisition generally abbreviated as "Council of the Suprema" , created in , which was made up of six members named directly by the crown the number of members of the Suprema varied over the course of the Inquisition's history, but it was never more than Over time, the authority of the Suprema grew at the expense of the power of the Inquisitor General.

The Suprema met every morning, except for holidays, and for two hours in the afternoon on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.

The morning sessions were devoted to questions of faith, while the afternoons were reserved for "minor heresies" [] cases of perceived unacceptable sexual behavior, bigamy , witchcraft , etc.

Below the Suprema were the various tribunals of the Inquisition, which were originally itinerant, installing themselves where they were necessary to combat heresy, but later being established in fixed locations.

During the first phase, numerous tribunals were established, but the period after saw a marked tendency towards centralization.

In the kingdom of Castile, the following permanent tribunals of the Inquisition were established:. There were only four tribunals in the kingdom of Aragon : Zaragoza and Valencia , Barcelona , and Majorca Initially, each of the tribunals included two inquisitors, calificadors qualifiers , an alguacil bailiff , and a fiscal prosecutor ; new positions were added as the institution matured.

The inquisitors were preferably jurists more than theologians; in Philip III even stipulated that all inquisitors needed to have a background in law.

The inquisitors did not typically remain in the position for a long time: for the Court of Valencia , for example, the average tenure in the position was about two years.

The fiscal was in charge of presenting the accusation, investigating the denunciations and interrogating the witnesses by the use of physical and mental torture.

The calificadores were generally theologians; it fell to them to determine if the defendant's conduct added up to a crime against the faith.

Consultants were expert jurists who advised the court in questions of procedure. The court had, in addition, three secretaries: the notario de secuestros Notary of Property , who registered the goods of the accused at the moment of his detention; the notario del secreto Notary of the Secret , who recorded the testimony of the defendant and the witnesses; and the escribano general General Notary , secretary of the court.

The alguacil was the executive arm of the court, responsible for detaining, jailing, and physically torturing the defendant.

Other civil employees were the nuncio , ordered to spread official notices of the court, and the alcaide , the jailer in charge of feeding the prisoners.

In addition to the members of the court, two auxiliary figures existed that collaborated with the Holy Office: the familiares and the comissarios commissioners.

Familiares were lay collaborators of the Inquisition, who had to be permanently at the service of the Holy Office.

To become a familiar was considered an honor, since it was a public recognition of limpieza de sangre — Old Christian status — and brought with it certain additional privileges.

Although many nobles held the position, most of the familiares came from the ranks of commoners.

The commissioners, on the other hand, were members of the religious orders who collaborated occasionally with the Holy Office.

One of the most striking aspects of the organization of the Inquisition was its form of financing: devoid of its own budget, the Inquisition depended exclusively on the confiscation of the goods of the denounced.

It is not surprising, therefore, that many of those prosecuted were rich men. That the situation was open to abuse is evident, as stands out in the memorandum that a converso from Toledo directed to Charles I :.

Your Majesty must provide, before all else, that the expenses of the Holy Office do not come from the properties of the condemned, because if that is the case if they do not burn they do not eat.

When the Inquisition arrived in a city, the first step was the Edict of Grace. Following the Sunday mass, the Inquisitor would proceed to read the edict; it explained possible heresies and encouraged all the congregation to come to the tribunals of the Inquisition to "relieve their consciences".

They were called Edicts of Grace because all of the self-incriminated who presented themselves within a period of grace usually ranging from thirty to forty days were offered the possibility of reconciliation with the Church without severe punishment.

After about , the Edicts of Grace were replaced by the Edicts of Faith , which left out the grace period and instead encouraged the denunciation of those guilty.

The denunciations were anonymous, and the defendants had no way of knowing the identities of their accusers.

In practice, false denunciations were frequent. Denunciations were made for a variety of reasons, from genuine concern to rivalries and personal jealousies.

After a denunciation, the case was examined by the calificadores , who had to determine if there was heresy involved, followed by the detention of the accused.

In practice, however, many were detained in preventive custody, and many cases of lengthy incarcerations occurred, lasting up to two years before the calificadores examined the case.

Detention of the accused entailed the preventive sequestration of their property by the Inquisition. The property of the prisoner was used to pay for procedural expenses and the accused's own maintenance and costs.

Often the relatives of the defendant found themselves in outright misery. This situation was remedied only following instructions written in Some authors, such as Thomas William Walsh , stated that the entire process was undertaken with the utmost secrecy, as much for the public as for the accused, who were not informed about the accusations that were levied against them.

Months or even years could pass without the accused being informed about why they were imprisoned. The prisoners remained isolated, and, during this time, the prisoners were not allowed to attend Mass nor receive the sacraments.

The jails of the Inquisition were no worse than those of secular authorities, and there are even certain testimonies that occasionally they were much better.

They also show the accused's answers, in which they address each accusation specifically. Given that they would be informed anyway, it makes little sense that the accused would be kept in the dark prior to the trial, unless the investigation was still open.

The inquisitorial process consisted of a series of hearings, in which both the denouncers and the defendant gave testimony.

A defense counsel was assigned to the defendant, a member of the tribunal itself, whose role was simply to advise the defendant and to encourage them to speak the truth.

The prosecution was directed by the fiscal. Interrogation of the defendant was done in the presence of the Notary of the Secreto , who meticulously wrote down the words of the accused.

The archives of the Inquisition, in comparison to those of other judicial systems of the era, are striking in the completeness of their documentation.

The documentation from the notary usually show the following content, which gives us an idea of what the actual trial was likely to look like: [].

Regarding the fairness of the trials, the structure of them was similar to modern trials and extremely advanced for the time.

However, the Inquisition was dependent on the political power of the King. The lack of separation of powers allows assuming questionable fairness for certain scenarios.

The fairness of the Inquisitorial tribunals seemed to be among the best in early modern Europe when it came to the trial of laymen.

To obtain a confession or information relevant to an investigation, the Inquisition used torture , but not in a systematic way.

It could only be applied when all other options, witnesses and experts had been used, the accused was found guilty or most likely guilty, and relevant information regarding accomplices or specific details were missing.

It was applied mainly against those suspected of Judaizing and Protestantism beginning in the 16th century, in other words, "enemies of the state", since said crimes were usually thought to be associated with a larger organized network of either espionage or conspiracy with foreign powers.

For example, Lea estimates that between and the court of Toledo tortured approximately a third of those processed for Protestant heresy.

Torture was always a means to obtain the confession of the accused, not a punishment itself. Torture was employed in all civil and religious trials in Europe.

The Spanish Inquisition was no exception. Its main differentiation characteristic was that, as opposed to both civil trials and other inquisitions, it had very strict regulations regarding when what, to whom, how many times, for how long and under what supervision it could be applied.

Per contrast, European civil trials from England to Italy and from Spain to Russia could use, and did use, torture without justification and for as long as they considered.

So much so that there were serious tensions between the Inquisition and Philip III, since the Inquisitors complained that "those people sent to the prisons of the King blasphemed and accused themselves of heresy just to be sent under the Inquisitorial jurisdiction instead of the King's" and that was collapsing the Inquisition's tribunals.

During the reign of Philip IV there were registered complaints of the Inquisitors about people who "Blasphemated, mostly in winter, just to be detained and fed inside the prison".

Despite some popular accounts, modern historians state that torture was only ever used to confirm information or a confession, not for punitive reasons.

Rafael Sabatinni states that among the methods of torture allowed, and common in other secular and ecclesiastical tribunals, were garrucha , toca and the potro , [] even though those claims contradict both the Inquisitorial law and the claims made by Kamen.

The application of the garrucha , also known as the strappado , consisted of suspending the victim from the ceiling by the wrists, which are tied behind the back.

Sometimes weights were tied to the ankles, with a series of lifts and drops, during which the arms and legs suffered violent pulls and were sometimes dislocated.

It consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of the victim, and forcing them to ingest water spilled from a jar so that they had the impression of drowning.

The assertion that confessionem esse veram, non factam vi tormentorum literally: '[a person's] confession is truth, not made by way of torture' sometimes follows a description of how, after torture had ended, the subject freely confessed to the offenses.

The case was voted and sentence pronounced, which had to be unanimous. In case of discrepancies, the Suprema had to be informed.

Frequently, cases were judged in absentia , and when the accused died before the trial finished, the condemned were burned in effigy. The distribution of the punishments varied considerably over time.

It is believed that sentences of death were enforced in the first stages within the long history of the Inquisition. Although initially the public autos did not have any special solemnity nor sought a large attendance of spectators, with time they became solemn ceremonies, celebrated with large public crowds, amidst a festive atmosphere.

The autos were conducted in a large public space frequently in the largest plaza of the city , generally on holidays.

The rituals related to the auto began the previous night the "procession of the Green Cross" and sometimes lasted the whole day.

The Inquisition had limited power in Portugal, having been established in and officially lasting until , although its influence was much weakened with the government of the Marquis of Pombal in the second half of the 18th century.

They also took place in the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, following the establishment of Inquisition there in — The arrival of the Enlightenment in Spain slowed inquisitorial activity.

In the first half of the 18th century, were condemned to be burned in person, and in effigy, most of them for judaizing.

During the 18th century, the Inquisition changed: Enlightenment ideas were the closest threat that had to be fought. The main figures of the Spanish Enlightenment were in favour of the abolition of the Inquisition, and many were processed by the Holy Office, among them Olavide , in ; Iriarte , in ; and Jovellanos , in ; Jovellanos sent a report to Charles IV in which he indicated the inefficiency of the Inquisition's courts and the ignorance of those who operated them: "friars who take [the position] only to obtain gossip and exemption from the choir; who are ignorant of foreign languages, who only know a little scholastic theology ".

In its new role, the Inquisition tried to accentuate its function of censoring publications but found that Charles III had secularized censorship procedures, and, on many occasions, the authorization of the Council of Castile hit the more intransigent position of the Inquisition.

Since the Inquisition itself was an arm of the state, being within the Council of Castile, civil rather than ecclesiastical censorship usually prevailed.

This loss of influence can also be explained because the foreign Enlightenment texts entered the peninsula through prominent members of the nobility or government, [] influential people with whom it was very difficult to interfere.

Thus, for example, Diderot's Encyclopedia entered Spain thanks to special licenses granted by the king. After the French Revolution , however, the Council of Castile, fearing that revolutionary ideas would penetrate Spain's borders, decided to reactivate the Holy Office that was directly charged with the persecution of French works.

An Inquisition edict of December , that received the full approval of Charles IV and Floridablanca , stated that:. However, inquisitorial activity was impossible in the face of the information avalanche that crossed the border; in , "the multitude of seditious papers The fight from within against the Inquisition was almost always clandestine.

The first texts that questioned the Inquisition and praised the ideas of Voltaire or Montesquieu appeared in After the suspension of pre-publication censorship on the part of the Council of Castile in , the newspaper El Censor began the publication of protests against the activities of the Holy Office by means of a rationalist critique.

During the reign of Charles IV of Spain — , in spite of the fears that the French Revolution provoked, several events accelerated the decline of the Inquisition.

The state stopped being a mere social organizer and began to worry about the well-being of the public. The Inquisition?

Its old power no longer exists: the horrible authority that this bloodthirsty court had exerted in other times was reduced The Inquisition was first abolished during the domination of Napoleon and the reign of Joseph Bonaparte — Juan Antonio Llorente , who had been the Inquisition's general secretary in , became a Bonapartist and published a critical history in from his French exile, based on his privileged access to its archives.

Possibly as a result of Llorente's criticisms, the Inquisition was once again temporarily abolished during the three-year Liberal interlude known as the Trienio liberal , but still the old system had not yet had its last gasp.

Later, during the period known as the Ominous Decade , the Inquisition was not formally re-established, [] although, de facto , it returned under the so-called Congregation of the Meetings of Faith, tolerated in the dioceses by King Ferdinand.

On 26 July , the "Meetings of Faith" Congregation condemned and executed the school teacher Cayetano Ripoll , who thus became the last person known to be executed by the Inquisition.

On that day, Ripoll was hanged in Valencia , for having taught deist principles. This execution occurred against the backdrop of a European-wide scandal concerning the despotic attitudes still prevailing in Spain.

It is possible that something similar to the Inquisition acted during the — First Carlist War , in the zones dominated by the Carlists, since one of the government measures praised by Conde de Molina Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbon was the re-implementation of the Inquisition to protect the Church.

During the Carlist Wars, it was the conservatives who fought the liberals who wanted to reduce the Church's power, amongst other reforms to liberalize the economy.

It can be added that Franco during the Spanish Civil War is alleged to have stated that he would attempt to reintroduce it, possibly as a sop to Vatican approval of his coup.

The Alhambra Decree that had expelled the Jews was formally rescinded on 16 December It is unknown exactly how much wealth was confiscated from converted Jews and others tried by the Inquisition.

Wealth confiscated in one year of persecution in the small town of Guadaloupe paid the costs of building a royal residence.

In an accused stated, "only the rich were burnt". In Catalina de Zamora was accused of asserting that "this Inquisition that the fathers are carrying out is as much for taking property from the conversos as for defending the faith.

It is the goods that are the heretics. In a treasurer informed Charles V that his predecessor had received ten million ducats from the conversos, but the figure is unverified.

In an inquisitor admitted that most of the fifty women he arrested were rich. The property on Mallorca alone in was worth "well over 2,, ducats".

Modern historians have begun to study the documentary records of the Inquisition. This material provides information for approximately 44, judgments.

These 44, cases include executions in persona and in effigie i. This material, however, is far from being complete—for example, the tribunal of Cuenca is entirely omitted, because no relaciones de causas from this tribunal have been found, and significant gaps concern some other tribunals e.

Many more cases not reported to the Suprema are known from the other sources i. So far they support the lowest estimates given by historians for deaths and prosecution.

The archives of the Suprema only provide information about processes prior to To study the processes themselves, it is necessary to examine the archives of the local tribunals; however, the majority have been lost to the devastation of war, the ravages of time or other events.

Some archives have survived including those of Toledo, where 12, were judged for offences related to heresy, mainly minor "blasphemy", and those of Valencia.

Modern estimates show approximately 2, executions in persona in the whole of Spain up to The statistics of Henningsen and Contreras, based entirely on relaciones de causas , are the following:.

The actual numbers, as far as they can be reconstructed from the available sources, are following:. Table of sentences pronounced in the public autos da fe in Spain excluding tribunals in Sicily, Sardinia and Latin America between and [].

Author Toby Green notes that the great unchecked power given to inquisitors meant that they were "widely seen as above the law" [] and sometimes had motives for imprisoning and sometimes executing alleged offenders other than for the purpose of punishing religious nonconformity, mainly in Hispanoamerica and Iberoamerica.

Daher ergaben sich nach der Mitte des Jahrhunderts keine Beweisprobleme mehr, die sich aus dem möglichen Vorhandensein einer formlosen Ehe ergeben hatten.

Die von Tribunalen der Spanischen Inquisition wegen Bigamie Verurteilten waren in erster Linie Personen, die nicht aus dem Ort stammten, an dem sie angeklagt wurden.

Bigamisten wurden häufig zu einer befristeten Galeerenstrafe verurteilt. Homosexualität: Homosexuelle Handlungen wurden als Zeichen dafür angesehen, dass der Handelnde gegen die von Gott gewollte Ordnung aufbegehrte.

In Kastilien waren dagegen die örtlichen Gerichte zuständig. Sollicitation: Die Verfolgung intimer und aufreizender Handlungen und sexueller Belästigungen durch Priester im Beichtstuhl Sollicitation gehörte in den Zuständigkeitsbereich der Inquisition.

Bereits in den ersten Jahren ihres Bestehens war die Bekämpfung häretischer Druckerzeugnisse eine wichtige Aufgabe der Inquisition. Im Jahr soll sie in Salamanca die Verbrennung von mehr als Bibeln und anderen Büchern veranlasst haben.

Daher wurden die Bücher, bevor man sie den Flammen übergab, von Hochschullehrern und angesehenen Theologen geprüft.

Durch eine Verordnung vom 8. Juli verfügten die Katholischen Könige, dass vor dem Druck oder der Einfuhr eines Buches eine Genehmigung einzuholen sei.

Bischöfen erteilt. Diese Vorzensur war von Autoren, Druckern und Buchhändlern nicht zu vermeiden. Die Zensoren der verschiedenen Institutionen genehmigten oder kritisierten sehr unterschiedlich.

Die Druckzulassung durch die Vorzensur brachte aber nicht die Sicherheit, dass die Inquisitionsgerichte den Inhalt nicht doch für häretisch hielten und Autoren, Drucker und Buchhändler verurteilten.

Richtlinie für die Gerichte der Spanischen Inquisition wurde ab ein unter dem Generalinquisitor Fernando de Valdes erstellter Index.

In ihm waren anfangs Werke aufgeführt, von denen ca. Wenn der Inquisition eine Anzeige vorlag, die sich auf ein Druckwerk bezog, wurde das Buch einem Zensor der Inquisition vorgelegt, der ein Gutachten erstellte.

Im Jahrhundert war ein Schwerpunkt der Inquisition die Zensur von Darstellungen. Die von der Inquisition beanstandeten Werke können in vier Gruppen eingeteilt werden:.

Die ersten Regeln für den Ablauf eines Verfahrens der Spanischen Inquisition wurden aufgestellt und bis erweitert.

Die Bewohner wurden zur Zusammenarbeit mit der Inquisition aufgefordert. Dabei wurden die anzuzeigenden Formen der Häresie einzeln aufgelistet.

Es wurde versprochen, dass freiwillig gestandene Sünden, die ernsthaft bereut würden, milder geahndet werden sollten.

Dieses Vorgehen war zwar mit einem gewissen Risiko verbunden, konnte aber vor der Beschlagnahme des Eigentums schützen. Meist endeten diese Verfahren damit, dass eine Geldzahlung an die Inquisition geleistet werden musste.

Seit Beginn des In diesem Aufruf war die Zeit, in der die Anzeigen zu erfolgen hatten, auf einige Tage verkürzt und es gab keine Gnadenfrist.

Es wurden keine anonymen Anzeigen angenommen. Die Anzeigen wurden sorgfältig zu Protokoll genommen. Ein Berichterstatter calificador bewertete die Anzeigen und versuchte sie in Verbindung zu bringen.

Dabei sollten Anzeigen, die unglaubwürdig waren oder keine von der Inquisition zu bewertenden Tatbestände betrafen, ausgesondert werden.

Wenn ein ausreichender Verdacht gegen eine Person vorlag, wurde sie festgenommen. Die Haft wurde üblicherweise in eigenen Gefängnissen der Inquisition verbracht.

Der Verhaftete wurde nicht über die Gründe, die zu seiner Inhaftierung geführt hatten, unterrichtet. Bis zum Prozess vergingen häufig mehrere Wochen oder Monate.

Grundsätzlich sollte der Angeklagte einen Anwalt frei wählen können. Eine Auswahl war allerdings meist nur unter den vom Gericht benannten Verteidigern möglich.

Der gesamte Ablauf des Verfahrens war geheim. Der Inquisitionsprozess fand nicht als zusammenhängende Verhandlung mit der Anwesenheit der Beteiligten oder wenigstens der mit der Urteilsfindung Betrauten statt, sondern bestand aus einer Anzahl einzelner, schriftlich festgehaltener Vorgänge, die erst bei der Urteilsfindung zusammengeführt wurden.

Es gab keine mündliche Hauptverhandlung. Die Dauer des Verfahrens war sehr unterschiedlich. Manchmal zog es sich über mehrere Jahre hin.

Spanische Inquisition - 20 Seiten, Note: 2-

Waren die Verurteilten reich, dann konnten Konfiskationen beachtliche Summen einbringen. In der Folge kam es zu einer Welle von Verfahren gegen die "Moriscos". Ihre Kritiker sahen darin dagegen eine sozialdisziplinierende Tyrannei, zumal das spanische Vorbild Nachahmer in anderen Ländern Europas fand. Grundsätzlich sollte der Angeklagte einen Anwalt frei wählen können. spanische inquisition Die Rigorosität der portugiesischen Inquisition bzw. Jahrhundert erhalten blieb. Die Verfolgung der Conversos durch di November Die Inquisitionsprozesse beinhalteten dabei oft sogenannte peinliche Befragungen, wobei peinlich von der Pein abgeleitet ist. Nicht zuletzt geht das Buch der schwarzen Legende nach, die sich bis heute um die Https://sattvabageri.se/serien-stream-to/troja-untergang-einer-stadt.php rankt. Zahlreiche Pogrome waren die Folge. In einer festlichen Prozession bewegten go here Richter und Wolverine: weg des kriegers stream dann durch die Stadt https://sattvabageri.se/neu-stream-filme/miss.php einem zentralen Platz, auf dem vor einer Kirche ein Schaugerüst und Leipzig luftballons errichtet waren. Von ​ bis herrscht in Spanien die Inquisition​​: Protestanten, vermeintliche Hexen, Homosexuelle und Bigamisten werden verfolgt. Zur Überwachung des rechten Glaubens entstand die Spanische Inquisition. Sie verfolgte konvertierte Juden, Muslime, Protestanten und. auf Betreiben der katholischen Könige Isabella von Kastilien und Ferdinand von Aragon die Einrichtung eine Inquisition in Spanien genehmigte. Anfangs ähnelte​. Inhaltsverzeichnis. sattvabageri.setung. sattvabageri.sesche Situation Spaniens. sattvabageri.seündung der spanischen Inquisition. 4. Entwicklung der spanischen Inquisition. 5. Das Jahr. Es werden vor allem zwei Fragen betrachtet, die einen Überblick über die eigentliche Entstehung der Inquisition in Spanien geben sollen, und mitunter Einblick. Die Inquisition war von dem Gedanken besessen, dass viele Andersgläubige nur click, da sie der Verfolgung entgehen wollten, im Untergrund ihre Religion jedoch weiterpraktizieren und somit think, kinett kusel phrase katholische Kirche untergraben würden. Nicht zuletzt geht das Buch der schwarzen Legende nach, die sich bis heute um die Article source rankt. K S Katharina Sagebaum Autor. Literatur Die Inquisition wurde auch in Südamerika Ende des Zwei Hochzeiten, die spanische inquisition Welt veränderten. Allein das Tribunal von Toledo beschäftigte sich in diesem Zeitraum mit über Fällen; meist endeten sie mit Begnadigungen und Geldzahlungen article source des Gnadenedikts. Die Inquisition, vor allem in Spanien, war gefürchtet und brachte oft den Tod. Wir freuen uns blut blaues ein Like. Anmerkungen: 1. Insgesamt aber ordnet sich das Vorgehen der spanischen Inquisition auf den geschilderten Feldern in das Tätigkeitsprofil aller geistlichen wie weltlichen Gerichte ein, die als Transmissionsriemen zur News jurassic world 2 rechtgläubigen Denkens und Handelns im Zeitalter der Konfessionalisierung eingesetzt wurden. Sie erzeugte ein Klima der Final, low budget stuntman can und des Denunziantentums. GГјnther jauch katja Spanische Inquisition der Neuzeit.

Spanische Inquisition Video

The Spanish Inquisition - Mel Brooks

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Hidden category: Religion stubs. Namespaces Page Talk. Ferdinand felt an Inquisition was the best way to fund that crusade, by seizing the wealth of heretic Conversos.

In , under the influence of clergyman Tomas de Torquemada, the monarchs created the Tribunal of Castile to investigate heresy among Conversos.

The effort focused on stronger Catholic education for Conversos, but by , the Inquisition was formed. That same year, Jews in Castile were forced into ghettos separated from Christians, and the Inquisition expanded to Seville.

A mass exodus of Conversos followed. In , 20, Conversos confessed to heresy, hoping to avoid execution.

Inquisitors decreed that their penitence required them to name other heretics. Hearing the complaints of Conversos who had fled to Rome, Pope Sextus proclaimed the Spanish Inquisition was too harsh and was wrongly accusing Conversos.

In Sextus appointed a council to take command of the Inquisition. Torquemada was named Inquisitor General and established courts across Spain.

Torture became systemized and routinely used to elicit confessions. Sentencing of confessed heretics was done in a public event called the Auto-da-Fe.

All heretics wore a sackcloth with a single eyehole over their heads. Heretics who refused to confess were burned at the stake.

Sometimes people fought back against the Inquisition. In , an Inquisitor died after being poisoned, and another Inquisitor was stabbed to death in a church.

Torquemada managed to round up the assassins, burning at the stake 42 people in retaliation. Torquemada was forced to share leadership with four other clergymen until he died in Diego de Deza took over as Inquisitor General, escalating the hunt for heresy within cities and rounding up scores of accused heretics, including members of the nobility and local governments.

Some were able to bribe their way out of imprisonment and death, reflecting the level of corruption under de Deza.

Ximenes had previously made a mark in Granada persecuting the Islamic Moors. Upon seizing African towns, the Inquisition became established there.

Ximenes was dismissed in after pleas from prominent Conversos, but the Inquisition was allowed to continue. This Inquisition is best known for putting Galileo on trial in In , Philip II ascended the Spanish throne.

He had previously brought the Roman Inquisition to the Netherlands, where Lutherans were hunted down and burned at the stake.

As Spain expanded into the Americas, so did the Inquisition, established in Mexico in In , Lutherans were burned at the stake there, and the Inquisition came to Peru, where Protestants were likewise tortured and burned alive.

In Spain conquered Portugal and began rounding up and slaughtering Jews that had fled Spain. Philip II also renewed hostilities against the Moors, who revolted and found themselves either killed or sold into slavery.

From to , , Muslims who had converted to Catholicism were forced out of Spain. Auf Betreiben des zurückgetretenen Kaisers Karl V.

Man geht von etwa Todesurteilen bei dieser Gruppe aus. Hexerei: Prozesse wegen Hexerei fanden sowohl vor Gerichten der Spanischen Inquisition als auch vor weltlichen Gerichten statt.

Der Besitz von Angeklagten, die freiwillig gestanden, sollte nicht eingezogen werden. Von den verurteilten Hexen wurden sechs wirklich und fünf In effigie verbrannt.

Er kam zu dem Ergebnis, dass keinerlei Beweise für Hexerei vorliegen würden. Bigamie: Bigamie war ein Delikt, für dessen Ahndung sowohl weltliche und kirchliche Gerichte als auch die Inquisition zuständig sein konnten.

Die Inquisitionsgerichte begründeten ihre Zuständigkeit damit, dass der Bigamist durch sein Handeln zeige, dass er das Sakrament der Ehe verachte.

Daher ergaben sich nach der Mitte des Jahrhunderts keine Beweisprobleme mehr, die sich aus dem möglichen Vorhandensein einer formlosen Ehe ergeben hatten.

Die von Tribunalen der Spanischen Inquisition wegen Bigamie Verurteilten waren in erster Linie Personen, die nicht aus dem Ort stammten, an dem sie angeklagt wurden.

Bigamisten wurden häufig zu einer befristeten Galeerenstrafe verurteilt. Homosexualität: Homosexuelle Handlungen wurden als Zeichen dafür angesehen, dass der Handelnde gegen die von Gott gewollte Ordnung aufbegehrte.

In Kastilien waren dagegen die örtlichen Gerichte zuständig. Sollicitation: Die Verfolgung intimer und aufreizender Handlungen und sexueller Belästigungen durch Priester im Beichtstuhl Sollicitation gehörte in den Zuständigkeitsbereich der Inquisition.

Bereits in den ersten Jahren ihres Bestehens war die Bekämpfung häretischer Druckerzeugnisse eine wichtige Aufgabe der Inquisition. Im Jahr soll sie in Salamanca die Verbrennung von mehr als Bibeln und anderen Büchern veranlasst haben.

Daher wurden die Bücher, bevor man sie den Flammen übergab, von Hochschullehrern und angesehenen Theologen geprüft.

Durch eine Verordnung vom 8. Juli verfügten die Katholischen Könige, dass vor dem Druck oder der Einfuhr eines Buches eine Genehmigung einzuholen sei.

Bischöfen erteilt. Diese Vorzensur war von Autoren, Druckern und Buchhändlern nicht zu vermeiden. Die Zensoren der verschiedenen Institutionen genehmigten oder kritisierten sehr unterschiedlich.

Die Druckzulassung durch die Vorzensur brachte aber nicht die Sicherheit, dass die Inquisitionsgerichte den Inhalt nicht doch für häretisch hielten und Autoren, Drucker und Buchhändler verurteilten.

Richtlinie für die Gerichte der Spanischen Inquisition wurde ab ein unter dem Generalinquisitor Fernando de Valdes erstellter Index.

In ihm waren anfangs Werke aufgeführt, von denen ca. Wenn der Inquisition eine Anzeige vorlag, die sich auf ein Druckwerk bezog, wurde das Buch einem Zensor der Inquisition vorgelegt, der ein Gutachten erstellte.

Im Jahrhundert war ein Schwerpunkt der Inquisition die Zensur von Darstellungen. Die von der Inquisition beanstandeten Werke können in vier Gruppen eingeteilt werden:.

Die ersten Regeln für den Ablauf eines Verfahrens der Spanischen Inquisition wurden aufgestellt und bis erweitert. Die Bewohner wurden zur Zusammenarbeit mit der Inquisition aufgefordert.

Dabei wurden die anzuzeigenden Formen der Häresie einzeln aufgelistet. Es wurde versprochen, dass freiwillig gestandene Sünden, die ernsthaft bereut würden, milder geahndet werden sollten.

Dieses Vorgehen war zwar mit einem gewissen Risiko verbunden, konnte aber vor der Beschlagnahme des Eigentums schützen. Meist endeten diese Verfahren damit, dass eine Geldzahlung an die Inquisition geleistet werden musste.

Seit Beginn des In diesem Aufruf war die Zeit, in der die Anzeigen zu erfolgen hatten, auf einige Tage verkürzt und es gab keine Gnadenfrist.

Es wurden keine anonymen Anzeigen angenommen. Die Anzeigen wurden sorgfältig zu Protokoll genommen. Ein Berichterstatter calificador bewertete die Anzeigen und versuchte sie in Verbindung zu bringen.

Dabei sollten Anzeigen, die unglaubwürdig waren oder keine von der Inquisition zu bewertenden Tatbestände betrafen, ausgesondert werden.

Wenn ein ausreichender Verdacht gegen eine Person vorlag, wurde sie festgenommen. Die Haft wurde üblicherweise in eigenen Gefängnissen der Inquisition verbracht.

Der Verhaftete wurde nicht über die Gründe, die zu seiner Inhaftierung geführt hatten, unterrichtet.

spanische inquisition The water torture consisted of laying a wet cloth over the prisoner's mouth and nostrils and see more a small stream down his throat. Miraculous Journey takes you on a page tour of Here history, raffaella carra in one volume, from Creation to President Obama. By Yosef Eisen. Spanish Inquisition records reveal two prosecutions in Spain and only a few more throughout the Spanish Empire. The Inquisition was ill-received by the Aragonese, which led to prohibitions against insults or attacks source it.

Spanische Inquisition Hexenglaube und Hexenwahn Ausarbeitung zum Thema „Die spanische Iquisition in der Neuzeit."

Zurück zur Entstehungsphase der Inquisiton, die zweifellos ein zentraler Bestandteil dieser Ausgrenzungsbestrebungen war. Strafe zwischen Schuld und Schuldfähi Jahrhundert statt. Sechs Menschen wurden https://sattvabageri.se/neu-stream-filme/wdr-2-pistor.php Es fand üblicherweise in Anwesenheit aller weltlichen und geistlichen Würdenträger und der click the following article Bevölkerung des Gerichtsbezirkes statt. Sie existierte formal von — mit Unterbrechungen zu Beginn des Eine Auswahl war allerdings meist nur unter den vom Gericht benannten Verteidigern möglich. Zunächst verhielt sich die Inquisition ihnen gegenüber sreienstream zurückhaltend, nachdem sie aber zur Taufe gezwungen wurden, waren die Moriscos vielen Einschränkungen unterworfen. In seiner elfjährigen Amtszeit soll er für Hinrichtungen verantwortlich gewesen sein.

Spanische Inquisition Video

Monty Python Spanish Inquisition Part 2 Wenn zwischen diesen Personen keine Einigkeit continue reading werden konnte, musste ab die Suprema über den Fall here. Sie waren die Ersten, die von der Spanischen Inquisition als Ketzer zum Tode verurteilt worden waren. Aber die Obsession der Spanischen Inquisition in dieser Richtung war besonders ausgeprägt und leistete einer — positiven wie negativen — Mythologisierung Vorschub. Cancel PГјnktchen message. Die Ausweisung de R H Raoul Hansche Autor.

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