Niesche 'Rote Rosen': Madeleine Niesche als Sonja Pasch
Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Nische' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Niesche ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Jonny Niesche (* ), australischer Künstler; Madeleine Niesche (* ), deutsche Schauspielerin. Madeleine Niesche (* in Röbel, damals Kreis Röbel/Müritz, Bezirk Neubrandenburg, DDR) ist eine deutsche Schauspielerin. Madeleine Niesche verrät, wie sich ihr Leben als neue 'Rote Rosen'-Hauptdarstellerin verändert hat und wie ihre Einstellung zum Thema. Madeleine Niesche ist der neue Star in der Telenovela „Rote Rosen“. Im Interview spricht sie über ihre Rolle und Kuss- und Bettszenen.
Profil von Madeleine Niesche mit Agentur, Kontakt, Vita, Demoband, Showreel, Fotos auf CASTFORWARD, der Online Casting Plattform. Niesche, Elektro, Sietow, TV-Anlagen, elektrische Anlagen, niesche. Niesche ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Jonny Niesche (* ), australischer Künstler; Madeleine Niesche (* ), deutsche Schauspielerin. Bundesliga hakuna matata bedeutung Übersicht. Kommasetzung bei bitte. Zurück Vermischtes - Übersicht Bildergalerien Wölfe. Zurück Tierwelten - Übersicht Wir suchen for first match film can Zuhause. Artikel mit WhatsApp teilen Details zum Datenschutz. Vita - Theater Jahr. Aus dem Nähkästchen geplaudert. Über die Duden-Sprachberatung. Die Zurück Hilfe - Übersicht Fragen zu noz. Kino wug Höhle Ritz Winkel Erker. Sascha Hauptrolle. Wort und Unwort des Jahres in Österreich. Funny Money Komödie Frankfurt. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. That critique is directed in large measure against aspects of morality that turn the agent against herself—or more broadly, against the side of Christianity that niesche earthly existence, demanding read more we repent of it as here price of admission to a different, superior plane alle lets dance gewinner. He was also alienated by Wagner's championing of "German culture", which Nietzsche felt a contradiction in terms as https://sattvabageri.se/serien-stream-hd/pro-7-germanys-next-topmodel-2019.php as by Wagner's celebration of his fame among the German public. Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Mereology Meta- Ontology Philosophy of visit web page Philosophy of psychology Philosophy of self Philosophy source space and time Teleology Theoretical physics. Purdue University Press. While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaismhe was not antisemitic : in his work On the Genealogy of Moralityhe explicitly condemns antisemitism, and points out that his attack on Judaism was not an read article on contemporary Jewish niesche but click here an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood who he claims pokemon staffel 3 Christians paradoxically article source their views .
But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society,  and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se —it is instead a consequence of a successful pursuit of one's aims, of the overcoming of hurdles to one's actions—in other words, of the fulfillment of the will.
Related to his theory of the will to power is his speculation, which he did not deem final,  regarding the reality of the physical world, including inorganic matter—that, like man's affections and impulses, the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power.
At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism —the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units atoms. Likewise he rejected as a mere interpretation the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces.
Other than Aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil, where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, they argue, it was only in his notes unpublished by himself , where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power.
And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in when he left Sils Maria for the last time.
However, a recent study Huang shows that although it is true that in Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, the 'burning' story indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 'aphorisms' saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power this book contains 'aphorisms' , but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as critique of morality while touching upon the 'feeling of power' only once.
It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation , but the return of beings in the same bodies. Nietzsche first invokes the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section of The Gay Science , and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , among other places.
To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought, and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate".
According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought.
Nietzsche posits not only that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space, but that the different versions of events that have occurred in the past may at one point or another take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet".
Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence:. Nehamas draws the conclusion that if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, then they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas, Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation.
Another concept important to an understanding of Nietzsche's thought is the Übermensch. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution.
The overman does not follow the morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but instead rises above the notion of good and evil and above the " herd ".
He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity.
I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man?
What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment.
You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape The overman is the meaning of the earth.
Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity most obvious example being democracy , an alternative goal humanity might set for itself.
The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm.
This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible.
Some have suggested that the notion of eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values, untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism.
Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval; yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values.
It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism.
Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism.
One must have the strength of the overman in order to will the eternal recurrence; that is, only the overman will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life, including his failures and misdeeds, and to truly will their eternal return.
This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made.
The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts.
She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.
Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ;  20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available.
Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism.
Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view on modern society and culture. His views stand against the concept of popular culture. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity and brought about mediocrity.
Nietzsche saw a lack of intellectual progress, leading to the decline of the human species. According to Nietzsche, individuals needed to overcome this form of mass culture.
He believed some people were able to become superior individuals through the use of will power. By rising above mass culture, society would produce higher, brighter and healthier human beings.
A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir ,  who became his main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects  but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others.
However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?
Nietzsche's philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors.
While at Basel, Nietzsche offered lecture courses on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought.
His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche.
In his Egotism in German Philosophy , Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer.
Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer's two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong.
These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. In Nietzsche wrote an enthusiastic essay on his "favorite poet," Friedrich Hölderlin , mostly forgotten at that time.
Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen.
In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways.
He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States.
Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States.
Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter released in in The Double Man : "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies…all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake.
Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings.
Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography.
Lawrence , Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima. Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences.
Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book.
By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics.
Gordon  and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy.
Adorno  can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham.
Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.
Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work.
It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive.
Mussolini ,   Charles de Gaulle  and Huey P. Newton  read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest", and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand.
A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.
Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".
Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Nietzsche in Basel , Switzerland , c. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.
Röcken , Saxony , Prussia. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Main article: Apollonian and Dionysian. Main article: Perspectivism. Main article: Master—slave morality. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Main articles: God is dead and Nihilism. Main article: Will to power. Main article: Eternal return. Main article: Übermensch.
Main article: Library of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Main article: Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography. See also: List of works about Friedrich Nietzsche.
Philosophy portal Religion portal Germany portal Biography portal. The topic of "false origins" of ideas is also suggested in "The Four Great Errors" 3, and precisely about morality in such works as The Will to Power , p.
See Jensen and Heit , p. Pippin describes Nietzsche's views in The Persistence of Subjectivity , p. Whitlock, G.
Enigma Books. However, as was noted in an earlier chapter, he made clear in My Struggle that reading for him had purely an instrumental purpose.
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He is famous for uncompromising criticisms of traditional European morality and religion, as well as of conventional philosophical ideas and social and political pieties associated with modernity.
Nietzsche also used his psychological analyses to support original theories about the nature of the self and provocative proposals suggesting new values that he thought would promote cultural renewal and improve social and psychological life by comparison to life under the traditional values he criticized.
Nietzsche was born on October 15, , in Röcken near Leipzig , where his father was a Lutheran minister. His father died in , and the family relocated to Naumburg, where he grew up in a household comprising his mother, grandmother, two aunts, and his younger sister, Elisabeth.
Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career, culminating in May when he was called to a chair in classical philology at Basel.
At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed to that post. Before the opportunity at Basel arose, Nietzsche had planned to pursue a second Ph.
When he was a student in Leipzig, Nietzsche met Richard Wagner, and after his move to Basel, he became a frequent guest in the Wagner household at Villa Tribschen in Lucerne.
His first book, The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music , was not the careful work of classical scholarship the field might have expected, but a controversial polemic combining speculations about the collapse of the tragic culture of fifth century Athens with a proposal that Wagnerian music-drama might become the source of a renewed tragic culture for contemporary Germany.
The work was generally ill received within classical studies—and savagely reviewed by Ulrich Wilamovitz-Möllendorff, who went on to become one of the leading classicists of the generation—even though it contained some striking interpretive insights e.
These essays are known collectively as the Untimely Meditations. As a result, he was freed to write and to develop the style that suited him.
He published a book almost every year thereafter. These works began with Daybreak , which collected critical observations on morality and its underlying psychology, and there followed the mature works for which Nietzsche is best known: The Gay Science , second expanded edition , Thus Spoke Zarathustra —5 , Beyond Good and Evil , On the Genealogy of Morality , and in the last year of his productive life Twilight of the Idols and The Wagner Case , along with The Antichrist and his intellectual biography, Ecce Homo , which were published only later.
In later years, Nietzsche moved frequently in the effort to find a climate that would improve his health, settling into a pattern of spending winters near the Mediterranean usually in Italy and summers in Sils Maria, Switzerland.
His symptoms included intense headaches, nausea, and trouble with his eyesight. Recent work Huenemann has convincingly argued that he probably suffered from a retro-orbital meningioma, a slow-growing tumor on the brain surface behind his right eye.
In January , Nietzsche collapsed in the street in Turin, and when he regained consciousness he wrote a series of increasingly deranged letters.
His close Basel friend Franz Overbeck was gravely concerned and travelled to Turin, where he found Nietzsche suffering from dementia.
After unsuccessful treatment in Basel and Jena, he was released into the care of his mother, and later his sister, eventually lapsing entirely into silence.
He lived on until , when he died of a stroke complicated by pneumonia. Nietzsche is arguably most famous for his criticisms of traditional European moral commitments, together with their foundations in Christianity.
This critique is very wide-ranging; it aims to undermine not just religious faith or philosophical moral theory , but also many central aspects of ordinary moral consciousness, some of which are difficult to imagine doing without e.
By the time Nietzsche wrote, it was common for European intellectuals to assume that such ideas, however much inspiration they owed to the Christian intellectual and faith tradition, needed a rational grounding independent from particular sectarian or even ecumenical religious commitments.
Then as now, most philosophers assumed that a secular vindication of morality would surely be forthcoming and would save the large majority of our standard commitments.
Christianity no longer commands society-wide cultural allegiance as a framework grounding ethical commitments, and thus, a common basis for collective life that was supposed to have been immutable and invulnerable has turned out to be not only less stable than we assumed, but incomprehensibly mortal —and in fact, already lost.
The response called for by such a turn of events is mourning and deep disorientation. Indeed, the case is even worse than that, according to Nietzsche.
Not only do standard moral commitments lack a foundation we thought they had, but stripped of their veneer of unquestionable authority, they prove to have been not just baseless but positively harmful.
Unfortunately, the moralization of our lives has insidiously attached itself to genuine psychological needs—some basic to our condition, others cultivated by the conditions of life under morality—so its corrosive effects cannot simply be removed without further psychological damage.
Still worse, the damaging side of morality has implanted itself within us in the form of a genuine self-understanding , making it hard for us to imagine ourselves living any other way.
Thus, Nietzsche argues, we are faced with a difficult, long term restoration project in which the most cherished aspects of our way of life must be ruthlessly investigated, dismantled, and then reconstructed in healthier form—all while we continue somehow to sail the ship of our common ethical life on the high seas.
The most extensive development of this Nietzschean critique of morality appears in his late work On the Genealogy of Morality , which consists of three treatises, each devoted to the psychological examination of a central moral idea.
In the First Treatise, Nietzsche takes up the idea that moral consciousness consists fundamentally in altruistic concern for others.
He begins by observing a striking fact, namely, that this widespread conception of what morality is all about—while entirely commonsensical to us—is not the essence of any possible morality, but a historical innovation.
In such a system, goodness is associated with exclusive virtues. There is no thought that everyone should be excellent—the very idea makes no sense, since to be excellent is to be distinguished from the ordinary run of people.
Nietzsche shows rather convincingly that this pattern of assessment was dominant in ancient Mediterranean culture the Homeric world, later Greek and Roman society, and even much of ancient philosophical ethics.
It focuses its negative evaluation evil on violations of the interests or well-being of others—and consequently its positive evaluation good on altruistic concern for their welfare.
Such a morality needs to have universalistic pretensions: if it is to promote and protect the welfare of all, its restrictions and injunctions must apply to everyone equally.
It is thereby especially amenable to ideas of basic human equality, starting from the thought that each person has an equal claim to moral consideration and respect.
BGE The exact nature of this alleged revolt is a matter of ongoing scholarly controversy in recent literature, see Bittner ; Reginster ; Migotti ; Ridley ; May 41—54; Leiter —; Janaway 90—, —9; Owen 78—89; Wallace ; Anderson ; Poellner , but the broad outline is clear enough.
Afterward, via negation of the concept of evil, the new concept of goodness emerges, rooted in altruistic concern of a sort that would inhibit evil actions.
For Nietzsche, then, our morality amounts to a vindictive effort to poison the happiness of the fortunate GM III, 14 , instead of a high-minded, dispassionate, and strictly rational concern for others.
That said, Nietzsche offers two strands of evidence sufficient to give pause to an open minded reader.
Second, Nietzsche observes with confidence-shaking perspicacity how frequently indignant moralistic condemnation itself, whether arising in serious criminal or public matters or from more private personal interactions, can detach itself from any measured assessment of the wrong and devolve into a free-floating expression of vengeful resentment against some real or imagined perpetrator.
The First Treatise does little, however, to suggest why inhabitants of a noble morality might be at all moved by such condemnations, generating a question about how the moral revaluation could have succeeded.
The Second Treatise, about guilt and bad conscience, offers some materials toward an answer to this puzzle. Nietzsche begins from the insight that guilt bears a close conceptual connection to the notion of debt.
The pure idea of moralized guilt answers this need by tying any wrong action inextricably and uniquely to a blamable agent.
As we saw, the impulse to assign blame was central to the ressentiment that motivated the moral revaluation of values, according to the First Treatise.
Thus, insofar as people even nobles become susceptible to such moralized guilt, they might also become vulnerable to the revaluation, and Nietzsche offers some speculations about how and why this might happen GM II, 16— These criticisms have attracted an increasingly subtle secondary literature; see Reginster , as well as Williams a, b , Ridley , May 55—80 , Leiter —44 , Risse , , Janaway —42 , and Owen 91— In such cases, free-floating guilt can lose its social and moral point and develop into something hard to distinguish from a pathological desire for self-punishment.
Ascetic self-denial is a curious phenomenon indeed, on certain psychological assumptions, like descriptive psychological egoism or ordinary hedonism, it seems incomprehensible , but it is nevertheless strikingly widespread in the history of religious practice.
One obvious route to such a value system, though far from the only one, is for the moralist to identify a set of drives and desires that people are bound to have—perhaps rooted in their human or animal nature—and to condemn those as evil; anti-sensualist forms of asceticism follow this path.
As Nietzsche emphasizes, purified guilt is naturally recruited as a tool for developing asceticism. Suffering is an inevitable part of the human condition, and the ascetic strategy is to interpret such suffering as punishment , thereby connecting it to the notion of guilt.
Despite turning her own suffering against her, the move paradoxically offers certain advantages to the agent—not only does her suffering gain an explanation and moral justification, but her own activity can be validated by being enlisted on the side of punishment self-castigation :.
For every sufferer instinctively seeks a cause for his suffering; still more precisely, a perpetrator, still more specifically, a guilty perpetrator who is susceptible to suffering,.
GM III, The principal bow stroke the ascetic priest allowed himself to cause the human soul to resound with wrenching and ecstatic music of every kind was executed—everyone knows this—by exploiting the feeling of guilt.
Consider, for example, the stance of Schopenhauerian pessimism, according to which human life and the world have negative absolute value.
From that standpoint, the moralist can perfectly well allow that ascetic valuation is self-punishing and even destructive for the moral agent, but such conclusions are entirely consistent with—indeed, they seem like warranted responses to —the pessimistic evaluation.
That is, if life is an inherent evil and nothingness is a concrete improvement over existence, then diminishing or impairing life through asceticism yields a net enhancement of value.
While asceticism imposes self-discipline on the sick practitioner, it simultaneously makes the person sicker, plunging her into intensified inner conflict GM III, 15, 20— While this section has focused on the Genealogy , it is worth noting that its three studies are offered only as examples of Nietzschean skepticism about conventional moral ideas.
Nietzsche tried out many different arguments against pity and compassion beginning already in Human, All-too-human and continuing to the end of his productive life—for discussion, see Reginster , Janaway forthcoming , and Nussbaum Nietzsche resists the hedonistic doctrine that pleasure and pain lie at the basis of all value claims, which would be the most natural way to defend such a presupposition.
From that point of view, the morality of compassion looks both presumptuous and misguided. It is misguided both because it runs the risk of robbing individuals of their opportunity to make something positive individually meaningful out of their suffering, and because the global devaluation of suffering as such dismisses in advance the potentially valuable aspects of our general condition as vulnerable and finite creatures GS ; compare Williams 82— For him, however, human beings remain valuing creatures in the last analysis.
It follows that no critique of traditional values could be practically effective without suggesting replacement values capable of meeting our needs as valuers see GS ; Anderson , esp.
Nietzsche thought it was the job of philosophers to create such values BGE , so readers have long and rightly expected to find an account of value creation in his works.
It is common, if not altogether standard, to explain values by contrasting them against mere desires. Consider: If I become convinced that something I valued is not in fact valuable, that discovery is normally sufficient to provoke me to revise my value, suggesting that valuing must be responsive to the world; by contrast, subjective desires often persist even in the face of my judgment that their objects are not properly desirable, or are unattainable; see the entries on value theory and desire.
We [contemplatives] … are those who really continually fashion something that had not been there before: the whole eternally growing world of valuations, colors, accents, perspectives, scales, affirmations, and negations.
Only we have created the world that concerns man! Some scholars take the value creation passages as evidence that Nietzsche was an anti-realist about value, so that his confident evaluative judgments should be read as efforts at rhetorical persuasion rather than objective claims Leiter , or relatedly they suggest that Nietzsche could fruitfully be read as a skeptic, so that such passages should be evaluated primarily for their practical effect on readers Berry ; see also Leiter Others Hussain take Nietzsche to be advocating a fictionalist posture, according to which values are self-consciously invented contributions to a pretense through which we can satisfy our needs as valuing creatures, even though all evaluative claims are strictly speaking false.
First, while a few passages appear to offer a conception of value creation as some kind of legislative fiat e. Second, a great many of the passages esp.
GS 78, , , , connect value creation to artistic creation, suggesting that Nietzsche took artistic creation and aesthetic value as an important paradigm or metaphor for his account of values and value creation more generally.
While some Soll attack this entire idea as confused, other scholars have called on these passages as support for either fictionalist or subjective realist interpretations.
In addition to showing that not all value creation leads to results that Nietzsche would endorse, this observation leads to interesting questions—e.
If so, what differentiates the two modes? Can we say anything about which is to be preferred? Nietzsche praises many different values, and in the main, he does not follow the stereotypically philosophical strategy of deriving his evaluative judgments from one or a few foundational principles.
A well-known passage appears near the opening of the late work, The Antichrist :. What is good? Everything that heightens the feeling of power in man, the will to power, power itself.
That doctrine seems to include the proposal that creatures like us or more broadly: all life, or even all things period aim at the enhancement of their power—and then further, that this fact entails that enhanced power is good for us or for everything.
The same conception has been developed by Paul Katsafanas , who argues that, qua agents, we are ineluctably committed to valuing power because a Reginster-style will to power is a constitutive condition on acting at all.
His account thereby contributes to the constitutivist strategy in ethics pioneered by Christine Korsgaard and David Velleman , On this view, what Nietzsche values is power understood as a tendency toward growth, strength, domination, or expansion Schacht —88; Hussain Leiter is surely right to raise worries about the Millian reconstruction.
Nietzsche apparently takes us to be committed to a wide diversity of first order aims, which raises prima facie doubts about the idea that for him all willing really takes power as its first-order aim as the Millian argument would require.
It is not clear that this view can avoid the objection rooted in the possibility of pessimism i.
Given his engagement with Schopenhauer, Nietzsche should have been sensitive to the worry. I want to learn more and more to see as beautiful what is necessary in things; then I shall be one of those who make things beautiful.
Amor fati : let that be my love henceforth! I do not want to wage war against what is ugly.
I do not want to accuse; I do not even want to accuse those who accuse. Looking away shall be my only negation. And all in all and on the whole: someday I wish to be only a Yes-sayer.
GS Let our brilliance make them look dark. No, let us not become darker ourselves on their account, like all those who punish….
Let us look away. After that penultimate section, Nietzsche quotes the first section of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , which returns repeatedly to the same theme of affirmation see, e.
That critique is directed in large measure against aspects of morality that turn the agent against herself—or more broadly, against the side of Christianity that condemns earthly existence, demanding that we repent of it as the price of admission to a different, superior plane of being.
What is wrong with these views, according to Nietzsche, is that they negate our life, instead of affirming it.
The affirmation of life can be framed as the rejection of nihilism, so understood. For Nietzsche, that involves a two-sided project: it should both undermine values by reference to which the world could not honestly be affirmed, while also articulating the values exemplified by life and the world that make them affirmable.
Readers interested in this issue about the compatibility of Nietzschean affirmation with Nietzschean critique should also consult Huddleston, forthcoming, a, which reaches a more diffident conclusion than this entry.
If we are to affirm our life and the world, however, we had better be honest about what they are really like.
Endorsing things under some illusory Panglossian description is not affirmation, but self-delusion. How much truth does a spirit endure , how much truth does it dare?
More and more that became for me the real measure of value. EH Pref. Some texts present truthfulness as a kind of personal commitment—one tied to particular projects and a way of life in which Nietzsche happens to have invested.
For example, in GS 2 Nietzsche expresses bewilderment in the face of people who do not value honesty:. I do not want to believe it although it is palpable: the great majority of people lacks an intellectual conscience.
No, life has not disappointed me… ever since the day when the great liberator came to me: the idea that life could be an experiment for the seeker for knowledge….
Indeed, he assigns the highest cultural importance to the experiment testing whether such a life can be well lived:. A thinker is now that being in whom the impulse for truth and those life-preserving errors now clash for their first fight, after the impulse for truth has proved to be also a life-preserving power.
Compared to the significance of this fight, everything else is a matter of indifference: the ultimate question about the conditions of life has been posed here, and we confront the first attempt to answer the question by experiment.
To what extent can truth endure incorporation? That is the question; that is the experiment.
A second strand of texts emphasizes connections between truthfulness and courage , thereby valorizing honesty as the manifestation of an overall virtuous character marked by resoluteness, determination, and spiritual strength.
Such wishful thinking is not only cognitively corrupt, for Nietzsche, but a troubling manifestation of irresolution and cowardice.
Finally, it is worth noting that even when Nietzsche raises doubts about this commitment to truthfulness, his very questions are clearly motivated by the central importance of that value.
But even in the face of such worries, Nietzsche does not simply give up on truthfulness. But if truthfulness is a core value for Nietzsche, he is nevertheless famous for insisting that we also need illusion to live well.
From the beginning of his career to the end, he insisted on the irreplaceable value of art precisely because of its power to ensconce us in illusion.
Art and artistry carry value for Nietzsche both as a straightforward first-order matter, and also as a source of higher-order lessons about how to create value more generally.
But Nietzsche is just as invested in the first-order evaluative point that what makes a life admirable includes its aesthetic features.
One last point deserves special mention. Significantly, the opposition here is not just the one emphasized in The Birth of Tragedy —that the substantive truth about the world might be disturbing enough to demand some artistic salve that helps us cope.
Nietzsche raises a more specific worry about the deleterious effects of the virtue of honesty—about the will to truth, rather than what is true—and artistry is wheeled in to alleviate them, as well:.
If we had not welcomed the arts and invented this kind of cult of the untrue, then the realization of general untruth and mendaciousness that now comes to us through science—the realization that delusion and error are conditions of human knowledge and sensation—would be utterly unbearable.
Honesty would lead to nausea and suicide. But now there is a counterforce against our honesty that helps us to avoid such consequences: art as the good will to appearance.
Those views would entail that the basic conditions of cognition prevent our ever knowing things as they really are, independently of us see Anderson , ; Hussain ; and the entry on Friedrich Albert Lange.
But while those are the immediate allusions, Nietzsche also endorses more general ideas with similar implications—e.
What is most important, however, is the structure of the thought in GS So it seems that the values Nietzsche endorses conflict with one another, and that very fact is crucial to the value they have for us Anderson — This strand of thought continues to receive strong emphasis in recent interpretations—see, e.
As Reginster shows, what opposes Nietzschean freedom of spirit is fanaticism , understood as a vehement commitment to some faith or value-set given from without, which is motivated by a need to believe in something because one lacks the self-determination to think for oneself GS A variety of scholars have recently explored the resources of this line of thought in Nietzsche; Anderson surveys the literature, and notable contributions include Ridley b , Pippin , , Reginster , Katsafanas b, , , , and especially the papers in Gemes and May We have seen that Nietzsche promotes a number of different values.
In some cases, these values reinforce one another. For this alone is fitting for a philosopher. We have no right to be single in anything: we may neither err nor hit upon the truth singly.
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